"Mimoxenolea{{italic title}} {{Taxobox | regnum = [[Animal]]ia | phylum = [[Arthropod]]a | classis = [[Insect]]a | ordo = [[Beetle|Coleoptera]] | subordo = [[Polyphaga]] | familia = [[Cerambycidae]] | genus = '''''Mimoxenolea''''' }} '''''Mimoxenolea''''' is a genus of [[beetle]]s in the family [[Cerambycidae]], containing the following species:[http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id11377/ Acanthocinini]. Retrieved on 8 September 2014. * ''[[Mimoxenolea bicoloricornis]]'' Breuning, 1960 * ''[[Mimoxenolea ornata]]'' (Breuning, 1961) * ''[[Mimoxenolea sikkimensis]]'' (Breuning, 1961) ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:Acanthocinini]] {{Acanthocinini-stub}}", "Otto Piper (castle researcher)#REDIRECT [[Otto Piper]]", "Klessheim Palace#REDIRECT [[Schloss Klessheim]]", "Wikipedia:WikiProject Spam/LinkReports/euchems-congress2010.de {{User:COIBot/Summary/LinkReports}} {{User:COIBot/linksaverdatabases|||||}} {{NOINDEX}} == Links == * {{LinkSummary|euchems-congress2010.de}} :* euchems-congress2010.de resolves to [//] :*: {{LinkSummary|}} :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Blacklist|blacklist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Domainredlist|domainredlist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Monitorlist|Monitorlist]]. :* None of the mentioned users is on the [[en:User:COIBot#Blacklist|blacklist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Whitelist|whitelist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Monitor list|monitor list]]. :* Link is blacklisted by 1 on [//da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mediawiki:Spam-blacklist da.wikipedia.org] == Users == * {{IPSummary|}} == Additions == {{User:COIBot/Additionlist_top}} {{User:COIBot/EditSummary|id=32148914|lang=nl|wikidomain=b|namespace=|pagename=Picking Simple Systems For clash of clans|username=|link=euchems-congress2010.de/?p=347|sortdomain=de.euchems-congress2010.|domain=euchems-congress2010.de|origdiff=http://nl.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?oldid=271350&rcid=219394|resolved=X|isIP=1|date=2014-10-05|time=01:26:02|wiki=nl.wikibooks.org|revid=271350|oldid=0|usercount=3|whitelisted=0|blacklisteduser=0|whitereason=|blackreason=|deleted=0|top=0|there=1|checked=1|coiflag=0|otherlinks={{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=www.google.de/search?q=arguing+parties|domain=google.de|U=3|L=2120|UL=X|WUL=X|base=|basedomain=|baseip=}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=euchems-congress2010.de/?p=347|domain=euchems-congress2010.de|U=3|L=1|UL=1|WUL=1|base=|basedomain=|baseip=}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=www.google.com/search?q=Mohammed&btnI=lucky|domain=google.com|U=3|L=-1|UL=X|WUL=X|base=|basedomain=|baseip=}}}} {{User:COIBot/Additionlist_bottom}} * Displayed all 1 additions.", "Draft:Train Locksmiths{{AFC submission|t||ts=20141006113056|u=Train Locksmiths|ns=118}} Train Locksmiths Ltd is a professional locksmiths based in Atherton, Manchester. The company has been active since 2009 but have been a family run business for over 28 years. Train Locksmiths Ltd have their own training centre in Atherton, training people from across the United Kingdom to become locksmiths. They are the only locksmith training college in the United Kingdom. They offer a few different courses for people to attend after a fee: "Level 3 Enhanced Course", "4 Day Auto Course" and the "ELCAS Credits Course". Train Locksmiths Ltd have established partnerships with the likes of HM Coastguard, Cornwall Fire & Rescue Service, The Territorial Army, Cheshire Constabulary, Directgov, Greater Manchester Police, Lancashire Constabulary, Royal Air Force, Sysco Business Skills Academy, Wigan & Leigh Housing, Royal Navy, DWP, Llywodraeth Cymru Welsh Government and Good Deeds Trust. As well as having a training centre, Train Locksmiths have their own shop where locals can go to receive advice, purchase items or get their keys cut. Train Locksmiths also has a call centre which is open 24 hours a day. With engineers all over the country, they can the whole of the United Kingdom. ==References== {{reflist}} * * * *", "List of Bien de Interés Cultural in the Province of Ávila#REDIRECT [[List of Bienes de Interés Cultural in the Province of Ávila]] {{R from move}}", "Category:Wikipedia categories named after families{{Wikipedia category|hidden=yes|container=yes}} {{Eponymous category}} This category contains categories named after families. When appropriate, place categories into subcategories. {{catseealso|Families}} [[Category:Eponymous categories|Families]] [[Category:Families|Ω]] [[Category:Wikipedia categories named after people| Families]]", "Demidovia#REDIRECT [[Paris (genus)]]", "Krong preah sihanouk#REDIRECT [[Sihanoukville (city)]]", "College Beauty{{Infobox film | name = College Beauty | image = | caption = | director = BK Pottekkad | producer = Balamani Filims | writer = | screenplay = | starring = [[Jayabharathi]]
[[T. R. Omana]]
[[Bahadoor]] | music = [[MS Baburaj]] | cinematography = | editing = | studio = Balamani Filims | distributor = Balamani Filims | released = {{Film date|1979|5|15|df=y}} | country = [[India]] | language = [[Malayalam Language|Malayalam]] }} '''''College Beauty''''' is a [[Malayalam films of 1979|1979]] [[Cinema of India|Indian]] [[Malayalam language|Malayalam]] film, directed by BK Pottekkad and produced by Balamani Filims. The film stars [[Jayabharathi]], [[Sankaradi]], [[T. R. Omana]] and [[Bahadoor]] in lead roles. The film had musical score by [[MS Baburaj]].{{cite web|url=http://www.malayalachalachithram.com/movie.php?i=973|title=College Beauty|accessdate=2014-10-12|publisher=www.malayalachalachithram.com}}{{cite web|url=http://malayalasangeetham.info/m.php?1201|title=College Beauty|accessdate=2014-10-12|publisher=malayalasangeetham.info}}{{cite web|url=http://spicyonion.com/title/college-beauty-malayalam-movie/|title=College Beauty|accessdate=2014-10-12|publisher=spicyonion.com}} ==Cast== *[[Jayabharathi]] *[[Sankaradi]] *[[T. R. Omana]] *[[Bahadoor]] *[[K. P. Ummer]] *[[Vincent (actor)|Vincent]] ==Soundtrack== The music was composed by [[MS Baburaj]] and lyrics was written by [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]]. {| border="2" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin: 1em 1em 1em 0; background: #f9f9f9; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%;" |- bgcolor="#CCCCCF" align="center" | '''No.''' || '''Song''' || '''Singers''' ||'''Lyrics''' || '''Length (m:ss)''' |- | 1 || Palliyaraykkullile || [[K. J. Yesudas]] || [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]] || |- | 2 || Poornendu Raathripol || [[K. J. Yesudas]] || [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]] || |- | 3 || Pushyaragangal || [[P Susheela]] || [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]] || |- | 4 || Vaasanthahemantha || [[Raveendran]], [[CO Anto]], KP Chandramohan || [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]] || |- | 5 || Velutha vaavoru || [[P Jayachandran]] || [[Mankombu Gopalakrishnan]] || |} ==References== {{reflist}} ==External links== * {{IMDB title|0332590|College Beauty}} [[Category:1979 films]] [[Category:Indian films]] [[Category:1970s Malayalam-language films]] {{1970s-Malayalam-film-stub}}
", "Athletics at the 1997 Summer Universiade – Men's hammer throw{{AthleticsAt1997Universiade}} The '''men's [[hammer throw]]''' event at the '''[[Athletics at the 1997 Summer Universiade|1997 Summer Universiade]]''' was held at the [[Stadio Angelo Massimino|Stadio Cibali]] in [[Catania, Italy]]. The final took place on 26 August. ==Medalists== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left" |- align="center" | width=200 bgcolor=gold|'''Gold'''||width=200 bgcolor=silver|'''Silver'''|| width=200 bgcolor=CC9966|'''Bronze''' |- |[[Balázs Kiss]]
''{{HUN}}'' |[[Vadim Kolesnik]]
''{{UKR}}'' |[[Ilya Konovalov]]
''{{RUS}}'' |} ==Results== ===Qualification=== ===Final=== [http://wwwfisu.ulb.ac.be/html/sathletics.html Results] {| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center" |- ! Rank !! Athlete !! Nationality !! Result !! Notes |- | {{Gold1}} || align=left| [[Balázs Kiss]] ||align=left| {{HUN}} || 79.42 || |- | {{Silver2}} || align=left| [[Vadim Kolesnik]] ||align=left| {{UKR}} || 77.16 || |- | {{Bronze3}} || align=left| [[Ilya Konovalov]] ||align=left| {{RUS}} || 76.16 || |- | 4 || align=left| [[Vadim Khersontsev]] ||align=left| {{RUS}} || 75.70 || |- | 5 || align=left| [[Nicola Vizzoni]] ||align=left| {{ITA}} || 75.12 || |- | 6 || align=left| [[Aleksandr Krasko]] ||align=left| {{BLR}} || 74.96 || |- | 7 || align=left| [[Konstantin Astapkovich]] ||align=left| {{BLR}} || 73.80 || |- | 8 || align=left| [[Koji Murofushi]] ||align=left| {{JPN}} || 73.46 || |} ==References== {{Reflist}} {{UniHammerThrow}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Hammer}} [[Category:Athletics at the 1997 Summer Universiade]]
", "Bern Botanic Gardens#REDIRECT [[Bern Botanical Garden]]", "Anne Marie François Boisgérard{{Unsourced|date=October 2014}} {{Expand French|Anne Marie François Barbuat de Maison-Rouge de Boisgérard|date=October 2014}} '''Anne Marie François Barbuat de Maison-Rouge de Boisgérard''', born 8 July 1767 in [[Tonnerre]], Department [[Yonne]] in [[Burgundy]], France, and died in combat on 9 February 1799 in [[Capua]], near [[Mantua]], in Italy, was a French general in the [[French Revolutionary Wars|Revolutionary Wars]]. He directed the engineering defense of Kehl during the 1796 [[Siege of Kehl (1796)|siege]]. He served in the Republican army from 1791 to his death in 1799. He was the son of the General of Brigade Jacques François Barbuat de Maison-Rouge de Boisgérard (1739-1815). {{French Revolution}} {{Napoleonic Wars}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Boisgerard, Anne Marie Francois}} [[Category:1767 births]] [[Category:1799 deaths]] [[Category:People from Tonnerre]] [[Category:French generals]] [[Category:French Republican military leaders of the French Revolutionary Wars|*] {{France-mil-bio-stub}}", "Berberis haoi{{taxobox |name=洮河小檗 tao he xiao bo |image = |regnum = [[Plant]]ae |unranked_divisio = [[Angiosperms]] |unranked_classis = [[Eudicots]] |ordo = [[Ranunculales]] |familia = [[Berberidaceae]] |genus = ''[[Berberis ]]'' |species = '''''B. haoi''''' |binomial = ''Berberis haoi'' |binomial_authority = T.S.Ying |synonyms= |synonyms_ref= |}} '''''Berberis haoi''''' is a [[species]] of [[flowering plant]] in the [[family (biology)|family]] [[Berberidaceae]], first described in 1999.T. S. Ying, Acta Phytotaxonomica Sinica 37: 339. 1999. It is endemic to [[Gansu Province]] in northwestern [[China]].[http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=250096170 Flora of China Vol. 19 Page 759 洮河小檗 tao he xiao bo ''Berberis haoi'' T. S. Ying, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 37: 339. 1999. ] ''Berberis haoi'' is a shrub up to 1 m tall. Leaves are deciduous, simple, narrowly oblanceolate to elliptical. Inflorescence is a raceme of 6-10 flowers. Berries are ellipsoid, each with 2 seeds. ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:Berberis|haoi]] [[Category:Flora of Gansu]] [[Category:Plants described in 1999]]", "JASSEM#REDIRECT [[Niji-Iro Japanese Immersion Elementary School]]", "AvalonWaterways#REDIRECT [[Avalon Waterways]] {{R from move}}", "Ambient Compendium{{Infobox album | Name = Ambient Compendium | Type = compilation | Artist = [[Bill Laswell]] | Cover = Bill Laswell - Ambient Compendium.jpg | Released = {{Start date|1996|8|27}} | Recorded = {{Start date|1993}} - {{Start date|1996}} at Greenpoint Studio, Brooklyn, NY | Genre = [[Ambient music|Ambient]] | Length = 131:56 | Label = M.I.L. Multimedia | Producer = Bill Laswell | Last album = ''[[Chapter One: Book of Entrance]]''
(1996) | This album = '''''Ambient Compendium'''''
(1996) | Next album = ''[[Oscillations (album)|Oscillations]]''
(1996) }} {{Album ratings |rev1 = [[Allmusic]] |rev1score = {{rating|4.5|5}}{{cite web |first= |last= |url={{Allmusic|class=album|id=mw0000074327|pure_url=yes}}|title=Ambient Compendium |publisher=Allmusic |date= |accessdate=October 19, 2014}} }} '''''Ambient Compendium''''' is a compilation album by American composer [[Bill Laswell]], released on August 27, 1996 by M.I.L. Multimedia. == Track listing == {{Tracklist | headline = Disc one (Dark Massive) | writing_credits = yes | extra_column = Artist (date) | title1 = [[Akasha (album)|Descent]] | note1 = from ''[[Akasha (album)|Akasha]]'' | writer1 = [[Bill Laswell|Laswell]] | extra1 = [[Bill Laswell|Divination]] (1995) | length1 = 6:04 | title2 = [[Dreamatorium|Maps of Impossible Worlds]] | note2 = from ''[[Dreamatorium]]'' | writer2 = [[Buckethead]], Laswell | extra2 = [[Buckethead|Death Cube K]] (1994) | length2 = 5:50 | title3 = [[Psychonavigation|Angel Tech]] | note3 = from ''[[Psychonavigation]]'' | writer3 = Laswell, [[Pete Namlook|Namlook]] | extra3 = [[Bill Laswell]] & [[Pete Namlook]] (1994) | length3 = 7:00 | title4 = [[Visitation (Jonah Sharp and Bill Laswell album)|Aion]] | note4 = from ''[[Visitation (Jonah Sharp and Bill Laswell album)|Visitation]]'' | writer4 = Laswell, [[Jonah Sharp|Sharp]] | extra4 = [[Jonah Sharp]]/[[Bill Laswell]] (1994) | length4 = 6:46 | title5 = [[Cymatic Scan|Monochrome Existence (Part 6)]] | note5 = from ''[[Cymatic Scan]]'' | writer5 = [[Tetsu Inoue|Inoue]], Laswell | extra5 = [[Bill Laswell]]/[[Tetsu Inoue]] (1994) | length5 = 11:02 | title6 = [[Web (album)|Open Url]] | note6 = from ''[[Web (album)|Web]]'' | writer6 = Laswell, [[Terre Thaemlitz|Thaemlitz]] | extra6 = [[Bill Laswell]] & [[Terre Thaemlitz]] (1995) | length6 = 10:19 | title7 = [[Somnific Flux|Distal Sonority]] | note7 = from ''[[Somnific Flux]]'' | writer7 = [[Mick Harris|Harris]], Laswell | extra7 = [[Mick Harris|M.J. Harris]] & [[Bill Laswell]] (1995) | length7 = 11:18 | title8 = Broken Dream | note8 = previously unreleased | writer8 = Laswell | extra8 = [[Bill Laswell]] (1996) | length8 = 7:29 }} {{tracklist | headline = Disc two (Disengage) | writing_credits = yes | extra_column = Original artist (date) | title1 = [[Akasha (album)|Tangier Space Draft]] | note1 = from ''[[Akasha (album)|Akasha]]'' | writer1 = [[Bill Laswell|Laswell]] | extra1 = [[Bill Laswell|Divination]] (1995) | length1 = 7:04 | title2 = [[Psychonavigation|Black Dawn]] | note2 = from ''[[Psychonavigation]]'' | writer2 = Laswell, [[Pete Namlook|Namlook]] | extra2 = [[Bill Laswell]] & [[Pete Namlook]] (1994) | length2 = 7:20 | title3 = [[Ambient Dub Volume II: Dead Slow|Evil Eye]] | note3 = from ''[[Ambient Dub Volume II: Dead Slow|Ambient Dub Vol. II]]'' | writer3 = Laswell | extra3 = [[Bill Laswell|Divination]] (1993) | length3 = 7:49 | title4 = [[Jihad (Points of Order)|Port of Entry (The Future Is With Control)]] | note4 = from ''[[Jihad (Points of Order)|Jihad]]'' | writer4 = Laswell | extra4 = [[Bill Laswell|Automaton]] (1994) | length4 = 11:40 | title5 = [[Light in Extension|Ancient Evenings]] | note5 = from ''[[Light in Extension]]'' | writer5 = Laswell | extra5 = [[Bill Laswell|Divination]] (1994) | length5 = 7:44 | title6 = [[Visitation (Jonah Sharp and Bill Laswell album)|Zurvan Akarana]] | note6 = from ''[[Visitation (Jonah Sharp and Bill Laswell album)|Visitation]]'' | writer6 = Laswell, [[Jonah Sharp|Sharp]] | extra6 = [[Jonah Sharp]]/[[Bill Laswell]] (1994) | length6 = 8:56 | title7 = [[Dub Terror Exhaust|Asiyah Dub (Blinding the Starry Eyes of God)]] | note7 = from ''[[Dub Terror Exhaust]]'' | writer7 = [[Gabriel Katz|Katz]], Laswell | extra7 = [[Bill Laswell|Automaton]] (1994) | length7 = 9:10 | title8 = White Lies | note8 = previously unreleased | writer8 = Laswell | extra8 = [[Bill Laswell]] (1996) | length8 = 6:25 }} == Personnel == *[[Bill Laswell]] – [[bass guitar]], [[Record producer|producer]] ==Release history== {|class="wikitable" ! Region ! Date ! Label ! Format ! Catalog |- | [[United States]] | 1996 | M.I.L. Multimedia | [[compact disc|CD]] | ESP 8508 |} == References == {{Reflist}} {{Bill Laswell}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Ambient Compendium}} [[Category:1996 compilation albums]] [[Category:Bill Laswell albums]] [[Category:Albums produced by Bill Laswell]]
", "Angels & Devils (game)#REDIRECT [[Angel problem]]", "Socorro High School (disambiguation)#REDIRECT [[Socorro High School]] {{R from move}}{{R to disambiguation page}}", "Love Ran Red{{Use mdy dates|date=November 2014}} {{Infobox album | Name = Love Ran Red | Type = studio | Artist = [[Chris Tomlin]] | Cover = Love-Ran-Red_Album.jpg | Released = October 27, 2014 | Genre = [[Contemporary Christian music|CCM]], [[Contemporary worship music|worship]] | Length = 48:58 | Label = [[sixstepsrecords]] | Producer = [[Ed Cash]] | Last album = ''[[Burning Lights]]''
(2013) | This album = ''Love Ran Red''
(2014) | Misc = {{Singles | Name = Love Ran Red | Type = Studio | Single 1 = Waterfall | Single 1 date = May 13, 2014 | Single 2 = Jesus Loves Me | Single 2 date = September 16, 2014 }} }} '''''Love Ran Red''''' is the tenth studio album from [[contemporary Christian music]] artist [[Chris Tomlin]].{{cite news|last1=Price|first1=Deborah|title=Exclusive: Christian Artist Chris Tomlin Performs Acoustic Versions of His Songs 'Waterfall' and 'Jesus Loves Me'|url=http://www.billboard.com/articles/news/6312377/chris-tomlin-performs-waterfall-and-jesus-loves-me-talks-about-love-ran-red-album|publisher=Billboard|date=12 November 2014}} Released on October 27, 2014 through [[sixstepsrecords]] the album was preceded by two singles, "Waterfall" and "[[Jesus Loves Me]]", and was produced by [[Ed Cash]]. ==Background== Produced by [[Ed Cash]], the album features the work of various songwriters. [[Matt Redman]], [[Jonas Myrin]], Ben Glover, [[Jason Ingram]], [[Ben Fielding]], Cash, and Tomlin all contributed their abilities to the songs of the album.{{cite news|last1=Yap|first1=Timothy|title=Chris Tomlin Reveals More Information to His Forthcoming Album "Love Ran Red"|url=http://www.hallels.com/articles/6416/20140917/chris-tomlin-reveals-more-information-to-his-forthcoming-album-love-ran-red.htm|accessdate=October 18, 2014|publisher=Hallels.com|date=September 17, 2014}} ==Reception== {{Album ratings | rev1 = [[AllMusic]] | rev1Score = {{Rating|3.5|5}}{{cite web |first=Timothy |last=Monger |title=Love Ran Red - Chris Tomlin |url=http://www.allmusic.com/album/love-ran-red-mw0002710296 |publisher=[[AllMusic]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev2 = ''[[CCM Magazine]]'' | rev2Score = {{Rating|4|5}}{{cite web |first=Matt |last=Conner |title=Chris Tomlin: Love Ran Red |url=http://ht.salemweb.net/ccm/ccmmagazine/digital/2014/nov/index.html |journal=[[CCM Magazine]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev3 = [[Cross Rhythms]] | rev3Score = {{rating|7|10|full=U+25A0.svg|empty=Solid white borderedS.svg|rating=square}}{{cite web |first=Chris |last=Webb |title=Review: Love Ran Red Deluxe Edition - Chris Tomlin |url=http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/products/Chris_Tomlin/Love_Ran_Red_Deluxe_Edition/153376/ |publisher=[[Cross Rhythms]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev4 = [[Indie Vision Music]] | rev4Score = {{Rating|2|5}}{{cite web |first=Zandi |last=Ian |title=Chris Tomlin - Love Ran Red |url=http://www.indievisionmusic.com/2015/01/14/chris-tomlin-love-ran-red/ |publisher=[[Indie Vision Music]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev5 = [[Jesus Freak Hideout]] | rev5Score = {{Rating|3.5|5}}{{cite web |first=Alex |last=Caldwell |title=Chris Tomlin, "Love Ran Red" Review |url=http://jesusfreakhideout.com/cdreviews/LoveRanRed.asp |publisher=[[Jesus Freak Hideout]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev6 = [[New Release Tuesday]] | rev6Score = {{Rating|4|5}}{{cite web |first=Sarah |last=Fine |title=A Welcome Addition |url=http://www.newreleasetuesday.com/userprofile_reviewssinglepost.php?review_id=22661&user_id=36205 |publisher=[[New Release Tuesday]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} | rev7 = ''[[Worship Leader (magazine)|Worship Leader]]'' | rev7Score = {{Rating|3.5|5}}{{cite web |first=Jeremy |last=Armstrong |title=Love Ran Red |url=http://worshipleader.com/albums/love-ran-red/ |journal=[[Worship Leader (magazine)|Worship Leader]] |accessdate=January 16, 2015}} }} Signifying in a four star review for ''[[CCM Magazine]]'', Matt Conner citing, "''Love Ran Red'' delivers once again with strong congregational offerings that are heartfelt and memorable". Jeremy Armstrong of ''[[Worship Leader (magazine)|Worship Leader]]'', in a three and a half star review, referencing it sounds like, " Very subtle EDM pop, Coldplay-esque emotive power, and straight-to-the-heart worship production." In imparting a three and a half star review for [[AllMusic]], Timothy Monger, recognizing, "Love Ran Red, picks up where Burning Lights left off, delivering 12 more anthemic, guitar-driven songs of praise with huge uplifting choruses and inviting hooks that should please existing fans and attract new ones." Reviewing the deluxe edition for [[Cross Rhythms]], Chris Webb, in a seven out of ten review, observing, "Overall, 'Love Ran Red' is an accomplished album that will please many people and achieve its primary intention of providing the world Church with new material for congregational worship and the songs here are impeccably performed and produced." Alex Caldwell, in a three and a half star review for [[Jesus Freak Hideout]], remarking, "''Love Ran Red'' is a solid entry in Chris Tomlin's growing body of work, and an album that adeptly celebrates Jesus and His sacrifice." Specifying in a four star review for [[New Release Tuesday]], Sarah Fine writes, "Granted, while there is nothing about ''Love Ran Red'' that stands out as particularly groundbreaking, the material presented is incredibly rich, and continues his ever evolving melodic experimentation... Love Ran Red will go down as yet another success in the Tomlin legacy, and it is a much welcomed addition." In a two star review for [[Indie Vision Music]], Ian Zandi criticizing, "there is not much to like about it... Skip Tomlin this year and invest in something worthwhile." ==Track listing== {{track listing | headline = Album | writing_credits = yes | title1 = Greater | length1 = 4:34 | writer1 = [[Ben Fielding]], [[Chris Tomlin]], [[Ed Cash]] and [[Matt Redman]] | title2 = Waterfall | length2 = 3:29 | writer2 = Cash and Tomlin | title3 = At the Cross (Love Ran Red) | length3 = 4:10 | writer3 = Matt Armstrong, Cash, Tomlin, Redman and [[Jonas Myrin]] | title4 = Jesus Loves Me | length4 = 3:31 | writer4 = Ben Glover, Tomlin and [[Reuben Morgan]] | title5 = Boundary Lines | length5 = 4:22 | writer5 = Cash and Tomlin | title6 = Almighty | length6 = 4:07 | writer6 = [[Jared Anderson (Christian musician)|Jared Anderson]], Cash and Tomlin | title7 = The Roar | length7 = 3:40 | writer7 = Cash, Tomlin and Wayne Jolley | title8 = Fear Not | length8 = 3:58 | writer8 = Cash and Tomlin | title9 = The Table | length9 = 4:13 | writer9 = Cash, Tomlin and Jolley | title10 = Psalm 100 | length10 = 4:17 | writer10 = Tomlin and [[Jason Ingram]] | title11 = I Will Boast | length11 = 4:36 | writer11 = Tomlin and Ingram | title12 = Jesus, This Is You | length12 = 4:01 | writer12 = Myrin | total_length = 48:58 }} The deluxe edition of the album features four extra songs: "In the End", a [[Tritonal]] remix of the single "Waterfall", and acoustic versions of "At the Cross (Love Ran Red)" and "Let It Be Jesus".{{cite web|title=Love Ran Red (Deluxe Edition)|url=https://itunes.apple.com/us/album/love-ran-red-deluxe-edition/id923641175|website=iTunes|accessdate=October 17, 2014}} {{track listing | headline = Deluxe edition extra tracks | writing_credits = yes | title1 = In the End | length1 = 3:54 | writer1 = Jason Dyba | title2 = Waterfall (Tritonal Remix) | length2 = 3:10 | writer2 = Cash and Tomlin | title3 = At the Cross (Love Ran Red) [Acoustic] | length3 = 4:25 | writer3 = Armstrong, Cash, Tomlin, Redman and Myrin | title4 = Let It Be Jesus [Acoustic] | length4 = 3:51 | writer4 = Redman, Tomlin and Myrin | total_length = 15:20 }} ==Singles== "Waterfall" is the first single off the album, and has seen top 10 success on the charts.{{cite news|title=Chris Tomlin's new album set for 27th October|url=http://www.crossrhythms.co.uk/articles/news/Love_Ran_Red/54579/p1/|accessdate=October 18, 2014|date=September 23, 2014}} Tomlin explains the inspiration for the song comes from two Psalms, 42:7 and 63, and the feel of the single was described as, "...your first love of God, the love of God just washing over you again..."{{cite web|title=CHRIS TOMLIN - WATERFALL (STORY BEHIND THE SONG) |url=http://www.christomlin.com/video/page/1 |accessdate=October 21, 2014}} The second single, "Jesus Loves Me", was released on September 16, 2014, and saw top 20 success on ''Billboard'''s Hot Christian Songs.{{cite web|title=Chris Tomlin Chart History - Hot Christian Songs|url=http://www.billboard.com/artist/299223/chris-tomlin/chart?f=355|publisher=Billboard magazine|accessdate=October 28, 2014}} Tomlin performed the song live for the Air1 radio station.{{cite news|last1=Sarachick|first1=Justin|title=Chris Tomlin Performs 'Jesus Loves Me' Live at Air1 Radio; 'Love Ran Red' Album Releases October 27|url=http://www.breathecast.com/articles/chris-tomlin-performs-jesus-loves-me-live-at-air1-radio-love-ran-red-album-releases-october-27-video-20239/|date=September 29, 2014}} Tomlin released a third song, "Greater", on his [[YouTube]] channel on October 7, 2014.{{cite web|title=Chris Tomlin - Greater (Audio)|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xx9EOsMI2Xw&list=UUPsidN2_ud0ilOHAEoegVLQ|website=Youtube.com|accessdate=October 18, 2014}} ==Tour== Tomlin announced a tour to accompany the album scheduled to take place in early 2015. Tomlin will be joined by fellow artists [[Rend Collective]] and [[Tenth Avenue North]].{{cite news|last1=Sarachik|first1=Justin|title=Chris Tomlin Announces 'Love Ran Red' Tour for 2015 with Tenth Avenue North and Rend Collective [VIDEO]|url=http://www.breathecast.com/articles/chris-tomlin-announces-love-ran-red-tour-2015-tenth-avenue-20232/|publisher=BREATHEcast.com|date=September 29, 2014}} Kicking off on February 18, 2015, the spring tour will begin in San Juan, Puerto Rico, and see 33 U.S cities by its end.{{cite news|last1=Sarachik|first1=Justin|title=Chris Tomlin's 'Love Ran Red' Continues to Impress as 'Jesus Loves Me' Reaches Top 10 [TOUR DATES]|url=http://www.breathecast.com/articles/chris-tomlins-love-ran-red-continues-to-impress-as-jesus-loves-me-reaches-top-10-tour-dates-21285/|date=October 30, 2014}} ==References== {{reflist}} {{Chris Tomlin}} [[Category:Chris Tomlin albums]] [[Category:2014 albums]]
", "Compendium of postage stamp issuers (Fa – Fz)#REDIRECT [[Compendium of postage stamp issuers (F)]] {{R from move}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Compendium of postage stamp issuers (Fa - Fz)}} [[Category:Unprintworthy redirects]]", "Compendium of postage stamp issuers (Me – Mz)#REDIRECT [[Compendium of postage stamp issuers (Me–Mz)]] {{R from move}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Compendium of postage stamp issuers (Me - Mz)}} [[Category:Unprintworthy redirects]]", "Template:French cruiser Colbert{{military navigation | name = French cruiser Colbert | title = {{ship|French cruiser|Colbert|C611|2}} | state = {{{state|autocollapse}}} | style = wide | bodyclass = hlist | list1 = * {{ship|French cruiser|Colbert|C611|2}} | list2 = * Preceded by: {{sclass-|De Grasse|cruiser|4}} * Followed by: ''None'' | below = * [[List of French cruisers|List of cruisers of the French Navy]] }} {{collapsible option}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Colbert}} [[Category:France military ship templates]] ", "File:Rata Blanca Entre el Cielo y el Infierno.png==Summary== {{Non-free use rationale 2 |Description = cover of album Entre el Cielo y el Infierno by Rata Blanca |Source = album cover |Date = 1994 |Author = Rata blanca |Article = Entre el Cielo y el Infierno |Purpose = to serve as the primary means of visual identification at the top of the article dedicated to the work in question. |Replaceability = n.a. |Minimality = only in album article |Commercial = n.a. }} ==Licensing== {{Non-free album cover}}", "Palazzo Pesaro, Venice#REDIRECT [[Ca' Pesaro]] {{R from alternate name}}", "UTA772#redirect [[UTA Flight 772]]", "2014 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu ramming attack{{Use mdy dates|date=December 2014}} {{Infobox civilian attack | title = Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu ramming attack | image = | alt = | caption = | location = {{nowrap|[[Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu]], [[Quebec]], [[Canada]]}} | coordinates = | date = {{Start date|2014|10|20}} | time = 11:30 a.m. | timezone = [[UTC−04:00|EDT]] | type = Vehicle attack, [[terrorism]] | perp = Martin Couture-Rouleau (killed while fleeing) | weapons = | fatalities = 2 (including the perpetrator) | injuries = 1 | motive = }} The '''2014 Saint Jean sur Richelieu ramming attack''' was a [[vehicular homicide]] that occurred in [[Quebec]]. Two [[Canadian Armed Forces|Canadian Forces]] members were hit by Martin Couture-Rouleau. [[Warrant officer]] Patrice Vincent died from injuries, while another soldier was injured, but survived. The [[Royal Canadian Mounted Police|RCMP]] and the [[Government of Canada]] has characterized the homicide as a terrorist act by an [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|ISIL]]-inspired terrorist. ==Attack and pursuit== On October 20, 2014, Martin Couture-Rouleau [[Vehicle ramming as a terrorism tactic|deliberately rammed]] a car into a pair of [[Canadian Armed Forces]] soldiers in a shopping centre parking lot in [[Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu]], [[Quebec]], [[Canada]], at 11:30 a.m. ET. He had been seen sitting in his car and watching for over two hours before the attack. A police chase ensued. The ''[[Toronto Sun]]'' reported that the suspect called [[9-1-1|911]] during the chase to say that he carried out his acts in the name of [[Allah]]. The chase ended when Martin Couture-Rouleau lost control of his car, rolling it into a ditch and onto its roof. A witness said that a spike belt was deployed. According to witnesses, Couture-Rouleau exited the car and charged a female police officer with a knife. Police shot him up to seven times and he was pronounced dead that evening in hospital. A large knife was seen stuck in the ground according to eyewitnesses.{{cite news |work=Cambridge Times |url=http://www.cambridgetimes.ca/news-story/4924393-canadian-soldiers-run-down-in-possible-quebec-terror-attack/ |title=Canadian soldiers run down in possible Quebec terror attack |date=October 20, 2014 |accessdate=November 17, 2014}} There were two victims. [[Warrant officer]] Patrice Vincent (53) died in hospital the next day while another unnamed solder sustained non-life-threatening injures.{{cite news |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/21/canada-soldier-convert-islam-hit-and-run-quebec |title=Canadian soldier killed by convert to Islam in hit and run |work=The Guardian |date=October 21, 2014 |accessdate=October 22, 2014}} One of the soldiers was in uniform and one was not. The attack was linked to terrorism by government and police officials including in a statement by Prime Minister [[Stephen Harper]].{{cite web |url=http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/10/21/saint-jean-sur-richelieu-attack-was-an-unacceptable-act-of-violence-against-canada-public-safety-minister-says/ |title=Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu attack was ‘clearly linked to terrorist ideology,’ safety minister says - National Post |author=National Post Staff |date=October 21, 2014 |work=National Post}}{{cite news |url=http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/21/us/canada-soldiers-killed-officer-attack/ |title=Canada: Soldier attack suspect 'radicalized' |first=Ralph |last=Ellis |date=October 21, 2014|work=CNN}} ==Victims== {{Infobox military person | honorific_prefix = [[Warrant officer]] | name = Patrice Vincent | honorific_suffix = | image = | image_size = | alt = | caption = | native_name = | native_name_lang = | birth_name = | nickname = | birth_date = | birth_place = | death_date = October 21, 2014 (age 53) | death_place = Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec | placeofburial = | placeofburial_label = | placeofburial_coordinates = | allegiance = {{flagicon|Canada}} [[Canada]] | branch = | serviceyears = | rank = Warrant officer | servicenumber = | unit = | commands = | battles = | battles_label = | awards = | memorials = | spouse = | relations = | laterwork = | signature = | signature_size= | signature_alt = | website = | module = }} Warrant officer '''Patrice Vincent''', 53, had served in the military for 28 years and was considering retiring to become a cabinet maker. He had previously served as a refrigeration and mechanical technician engineer as well as a military firefighter. Vincent's funeral was held on November 1, 2014.{{cite web |title=Funeral arrangements confirmed for Patrice Vincent |url=http://www.chch.com/funeral-arrangements-confirmed-patrice-vincent/ |publisher=CHCH TV |accessdate=October 27, 2014}} A second Canadian Forces member was injured in the attack. ==Perpetrator== '''Martin Couture-Rouleau''' (d. October 20, 2014, age 25) was a francophone Canadian living with his parents in [[Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu]] at the time of the attack. He was separated from his partner and their young child. Couture-Rouleau had converted to [[Islam]] in the previous year, and was praying at a mosque "regularly."{{cite news |last1=Austen |first1=Ian |title=Hit-and-Run That Killed Canadian Soldier Is Called Terrorist Attack |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/22/world/americas/canadian-soldier-run-down-in-what-officials-call-act-of-terror-dies.html |accessdate=November 7, 2014 |work=New York Times |date=October 21, 2014}} He had owned a small power-washing business that failed. Legal documents show Couture-Rouleau became a [[Muslim]] [[Religious conversion|convert]] in 2013 and started to refer to himself as Ahmad LeConverti (Ahmad the Converted). [[Facebook]] activity and a [[Canadian Broadcasting Corporation|CBC]] interview show that he had become a supporter of [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant|ISIL]]. He posted images and links that were [[Anti-Americanism|anti-American foreign policy]], and links to [[Antisemitism|anti-Semitic]] [[YouTube]] videos. [[Global Television Network|Global]] reported Facebook posts in both English and French about Allah and graphic posters with references to Islam’s superiority over [[Christianity]]. A Facebook friend who corresponded with Couture-Rouleau said, "So he was really mad that Canada actually supported the American bombing of [ISIS] in Syria and Iraq so I think that was the main motive in killing that Canadian soldier."{{cite news |work=CBC News |first1=Mark |last1=Gollom |first2=Tracey |last2=Lindeman |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/who-is-martin-couture-rouleau-1.2807285 |title=Who is Martin Couture-Rouleau? |date=October 22, 2014 |publisher= |accessdate=October 26, 2014}}{{cite news|last1=APreport|title=Canadian soldier killed by convert to Islam in hit and run|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/oct/21/canada-soldier-convert-islam-hit-and-run-quebec|accessdate=October 27, 2014|agency=AP|publisher=The Guardian|date=October 21, 2014}} Another told Radio-Canada that Couture-Rouleau spent hours on the internet and devoured [[Jihadism|jihadist]] literature, and that Couture-Rouleau dreamed of dying as a [[martyr]]. According to information Radio-Canada obtained, he had convinced at least four or five people in his circle of friends to convert to Islam, but the friend said that Couture-Rouleau got carried away with an extreme interpretation of the [[Quran|Qur'an]]. A friend said he was obsessed with practicing his new religion and trying to convert his friends. The [[Royal Canadian Mounted Police|RCMP]] became aware of Couture-Rouleau after a relative alerted police to the man’s terrorist leanings. He wanted to travel to Iraq to fight with ISIL the summer before he perpetrated the attack in Quebec.{{cite news |work=Toronto Star |last1=Woods|first1=Allan |title=How Martin Couture-Rouleau became an aspiring Islamic State fighter |url=http://www.thestar.com/news/canada/2014/10/26/how_martin_couturerouleau_became_an_aspiring_islamic_state_fighter.html |accessdate=October 27, 2014}} His Canadian passport was revoked in June 2014 over concerns that he "become radicalized after converting to Islam." RCMP Commissioner [[Bob Paulson]] confirmed he was one of 90 Canadians under surveillance by the RCMP because they were suspected of wanting to join terrorist organizations.{{cite news |last1=Mayer |first1=Andre |title=Michael Zehaf-Bibeau and Martin Couture-Rouleau: How Canada tracks homegrown radicals Parliament Hill, Quebec attacks renew concerns about home-grown extremists |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/michael-zehaf-bibeau-and-martin-couture-rouleau-how-canada-tracks-homegrown-radicals-1.2807390 |accessdate=November 7, 2014 |work=CBC News |date=October 27, 2014}} ==Responses== The Conservative government immediately labelled the act as a terrorist one. According to [[Steven Blaney]], Canadian [[Minister of Public Safety]], the attack was "clearly linked to terrorist ideology."{{cite news|last1=staff|title=Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu attack was ‘clearly linked to terrorist ideology,’ safety minister says|url=http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/10/21/saint-jean-sur-richelieu-attack-was-an-unacceptable-act-of-violence-against-canada-public-safety-minister-says/|accessdate=November 7, 2014|publisher=Natioonal Post|date=October 21, 2014}} The Prime Minister's office released a statement that said in part "The individual who struck the two CAF members with his car is known to federal authorities, including the [[Integrated National Security Enforcement Teams]] (the Integrated National Security Enforcement Teams are an anti-terrorism police unit). Federal authorities have confirmed that there are clear indications that the individual had become radicalized." After the [[2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, Ottawa]], Prime Minister Stephen Harper gave a nationally televised address in which he said "Warrant Officer Patrice Vincent... was killed earlier this week by an ISIL-inspired terrorist" and "this week's events are a grim reminder that Canada is not immune to the types of terrorist attacks we have seen elsewhere around the world. We are also reminded that attacks on our security personnel and on our institutions of governance are by their very nature, attacks on our country, on our values. on our society, on us Canadians as a free and democratic people who embrace human dignity for all."{{cite news |title=Ottawa shooting: Harper, Mulcair, Trudeau speak about attack |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/ottawa-shooting-harper-mulcair-trudeau-speak-about-attack-1.2809530|work=CBC News |accessdate=November 30, 2014}} Conservative MP [[Erin O'Toole]] said on ''[[Power Play (Canadian political affairs series)|Power Play]]'' that he stands behind the terrorist act label, both in the case of Zehaf-Bibeau and Martin Couture-Rouleau. "Warrant Officer Vincent and Nathan Cirillo weren’t attacked for who they were, they were attacked for what their uniform represented, so inherently that’s terrorism."{{cite news |url=http://www.ctvnews.ca/canada/was-parliament-gunman-a-terrorist-mulcair-says-criminal-igniting-debate-1.2078067#ixzz3KXvgHuEW |title=Was Parliament gunman a terrorist? Mulcair says 'criminal,' igniting debate |work=CTV News|accessdate=December 1, 2014}} Rouleau's next-door neighbour said, "Mr. Rouleau’s father, Gilles, as a peaceful man who tried to help his troubled son. She said Mr. Rouleau had been “brainwashed” by online radicals. "I don’t think it’s a terrorist act," she said. "He needed help. We could see that he needed psychiatric help."{{cite news |url=http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/10/21/martin-rouleaus-neighbours-sad-but-not-surprised-over-his-alleged-role-in-soldiers-death/|title=''Martin Rouleau’s neighbours sad but not surprised over his alleged role in soldier’s death'' |first=Graeme |last=Hamilton |date=October 21, 2014 |work=National Post|accessdate=December 1, 2014}} "To convert to a new religion and to adopt such violent, radical ideology suggests that he was influenced by others, in person or online," said Wagdy Loza, head of the [[Canadian Psychological Association]]'s extremism and terrorism section.{{cite news |url=http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/10/21/was-quebec-attack-on-soldiers-really-terrorism-or-just-the-violent-actions-of-a-disturbed-man/ |title=Was Quebec attack on soldiers really terrorism, or just the violent actions of a disturbed man? |first=Tom |last=Blackwell |date=October 21, 2014 |work=National Post |accessdate=December 1, 2014}} In an article on the ''[[The Daily Beast]]'' website, Jacob Siegel equated both Couture-Rouleau and Zehaf-Bibeau, "the killers who brought terror to Canada this week", with the [[2014 Queens hatchet attack|2014 New York City hatchet attacker]], saying "like the killers who brought terror to Canada this week, the New York attacker is being called a "lone wolf", meaning he acted essentially on his own, [Couture-Rouleau and Zehab-Bibeau] seem custom made for the stray dog profile, and the kind of terrorist the West could be seeing a lot more of in the future". He cites a paper by [[Brian Michael Jenkins]] of the [[RAND Corporation]]. Jenkins described them as "stray dogs," rather than [[Lone wolf (terrorism)|lone wolves]], characterizing them as "misfits" who are "who are moved from seething anger to spontaneous deadly action" by exposure to [[Islamism|Islamist]] propaganda.{{cite web|last1=Siegel|first1=Jacob |title=Lone Wolves, Terrorist Runts, and the Stray Dogs of ISIS Why ISIS and al Qaeda rely on loners and losers to carry out their terrorist agenda in the West|url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/10/24/in-canada-the-stray-dogs-of-isis.html |accessdate=November 7, 2014 |publisher=Daily Beast |date=October 24, 2014}} ==Media reactions== Commentators have cited the attacks against Canadian soldiers in Quebec and Ottawa while arguing against Canadian Government changes to anti-terrorism legislation, although the legislation was prepared long before the attacks occurred and is not in response specifically to the two attacks. James Baxter, editor-in-chief of ipolitics.ca, an Ottawa political [[zine]], said "the government is exploiting two isolated murders to push through sweeping new surveillance powers" and pointed out "the would-be 'terrorists' involved were armed only with a car and a vintage hunting rifle".{{cite web |url=http://www.ipolitics.ca/2014/11/04/harper-isnt-about-to-let-a-good-crisis-get-away/ |title=''Harper isn't about to get a good crisis get away'', |first=James |last=Baxter |date=November 4, 2014 |publisher=iPolitics |accessdate=December 1, 2014}} In an opinion piece, [[Linda McQuaig]], said "lots of hype about Canada and our institutions being under attack — even as it got harder to explain the difference between the 'terrorist' murders of two soldiers and [[2014 Moncton shootings|the 'non-terrorist' murders of three RCMP officers in Moncton]]. The main difference appeared to be that the shooter in Moncton was not a follower of Islam".{{cite web |url=http://www.ipolitics.ca/2014/10/29/for-stephen-harper-fear-works/ |title=''For Stephen Harper, Fear Works'' |first=Linda |last=McQuaig |date=October 29, 2014 |publisher=iPolitics |accessdate=December 1, 2014}} [[Pulitzer Prize]]-winning American journalist [[Glenn Greenwald]] of ''[[The Intercept]],'' referring to this case and the Parliament Hill shooting, "The statements of those accused by the west of terrorism, and even the Pentagon’s own commissioned research, have made conclusively clear what motivates these acts: namely, anger over the violence, abuse and interference by Western countries in that part of the world, with the world’s Muslims overwhelmingly the targets and victims. The very policies of militarism and civil liberties erosions justified in the name of stopping terrorism are actually what fuels terrorism and ensures its endless continuation."{{cite web |url=https://firstlook.org/theintercept/2014/10/22/canada-proclaiming-war-12-years-shocked-someone-attacked-soldiers/ |title=''CANADA, AT WAR FOR 13 YEARS, SHOCKED THAT ‘A TERRORIST’ ATTACKED ITS SOLDIERS'' |first=Glenn |last=Greenwald |date=October 22, 2014 |publisher=The Intercept |accessdate=December 1, 2014}} Andre Picard, in an opinion piece for ''[[The Globe and Mail]]'', acknowledged the Couture-Rouleau and Zehaf-Bibeau were both attracted to radical elements in Islam, and dismissed arguments that mental illness caused their actions.{{cite news |last1=Picard |first1=Andre |title=We can’t legislate lost souls |url=http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-debate/we-cant-legislate-lost-souls/article21330013/ |accessdate=November 11, 2014 |work=The Globe and Mail |date=October 28, 2014}} Vincent and Nathan Cirillo, the victim in the Ottawa shootings, were jointly named the [[Canadian Newsmaker of the Year|Canadian Newsmakers of the Year]] by the [[Canadian Press]].{{cite web|last1=Perkel|first1=Colin|title=Slain soldiers Cirillo and Vincent named Canada's Newsmaker of the Year|url=http://www.calgaryherald.com/news/national/Slain+soldiers+Cirillo+Vincent+named+Canadas+Newsmaker+Year/10671276/story.html|publisher=The Canadian Press|accessdate=December 20, 2014|date=December 20, 2014}} ==See also== *[[Vehicle ramming as a terrorism tactic]] *[[2014 shootings at Parliament Hill, Ottawa]] ==References== {{reflist|30em |refs= {{cite news |last1=Bruemmer|first1=Rene|title=From typical teen to jihadist: How Martin Couture-Rouleau became radicalized after converting to Islam |url=http://news.nationalpost.com/2014/11/09/from-typical-teen-to-jihadist-how-martin-couture-rouleau-became-radicalized-after-converting-to-islam/ |accessdate=November 11, 2014 |work=National Post |date=November 9, 2014}} {{cite news |last1=Tucker|first1=Erika |title=Who is Quebec terror-linked suspect Martin Rouleau?|url=http://globalnews.ca/news/1626457/who-is-quebec-terror-linked-suspect-martin-rouleau/ |work=Global News |accessdate=November 30, 2014}} {{cite news |work=CBC News |author=CBC News |title=Martin Couture-Rouleau, hit-and-run driver, arrested by RCMP in July |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/martin-couture-rouleau-hit-and-run-driver-arrested-by-rcmp-in-july-1.2807078 |accessdate=October 27, 2014}} {{cite news |title=Patrice Vincent, soldier killed in St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, was close to retirement |url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/patrice-vincent-soldier-killed-in-st-jean-sur-richelieu-was-close-to-retirement-1.2810967 |accessdate=October 27, 2014 |author=CBC News |publisher=CBC News|date=October 23, 2014}} {{cite news |last1=Deland |first1=Maxime |title='Radicalized' Quebecer shot dead after running down 2 soldiers in suspected terrorist attack|url=http://www.torontosun.com/2014/10/20/possible-terror-attack-as-soldiers-run-down-in-quebec-parking-lot |work=Toronto Sun |accessdate=November 30, 2014}} }} {{Canadian Newsmaker of the Year|state=collapsed}} [[Category:Attacks in 2014]] [[Category:Terrorist incidents in Canada]] [[Category:Terrorist incidents in 2014]] [[Category:Crime in Quebec]] [[Category:Vehicle rampage]] [[Category:Homicides by motor vehicle]] [[Category:Terrorist incidents involving vehicular attacks]] [[Category:2014 in Quebec]] [[Category:Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu]]", "Chloé Valdary'''Chloé Simone Valdary''' is a pro-Israel political activist and a Zionist.{{cite news|last1=Fattal|first1=Isabel|title=Why African-American Firebrand Chloe Valdary Wants To Ignite a Zionist Renaissance|url=http://tabletmag.com/jewish-news-and-politics/186527/chloe-valdary|accessdate=29 October 2014|publisher=Tablet|date=29 October 2014}}{{cite news|title=British MPs Vote to Recognize Palestine|url=http://pjmedia.com/tatler/2014/10/14/british-mps-vote-to-recognize-palestine/|accessdate=28 October 2014|publisher=PJ Media|date=14 October 2014}} ==Personal life== Valdary grew up in [[New Orleans]], in a family that belonged to the [[Armstrongism|seventh-day Sabbatarian]] Christian [[Intercontinental Church of God]].{{cite news|last1=Weiss|first1=Anthony||last2=Moster|first2=Miriam|title=Chloe Valdary: Christian, black, rising star of pro-Israel campus activism |url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/chloe-valdary-christian-black-rising-star-of-pro-israel-campus-activism/|accessdate=28 October 2014|work=Times of Israel|date=9 September 2014}} {{As of|2014}}, she was a senior majoring in International Studies at the University of New Orleans.{{cite web|title=Chloé Valdary|url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/contributors/chloe-valdary.html|publisher=The Daily Beast|accessdate=28 October 2014}} ==Activism== Valdary founded a pro-Israel student group, Allies of Israel, while a student at the [[University of New Orleans]].{{cite news|title=Non-Jewish New Orleans University Sophomore Creates “Allies for Israel”|url=http://www.algemeiner.com/2013/02/01/non-jewish-new-orleans-university-sophomore-creates-%E2%80%9Callies-for-israel-video/|accessdate=28 October 2014|work=The Algemeiner|date=1 February 2013}}{{cite news|last1=Marcus|first1=Lori Levanthal|title=African-American student starts Pro-Israel Group in New Orleans|url=http://www.jewishpress.com/news/african-american-pro-israel-group-on-new-orleans-campus-fighting-antisemitism/2013/01/14/|accessdate=28 October 2014|publisher=The Jewish Press|date=14 January 2013}} According to ''[[The Times of Israel]]'', Valdary "garnered widespread attention" with an article she wrote in ''[[Tablet (magazine)|Tablet]]'' in which she argued that pro-Palestine activists misappropriate the narrative of the [[African-American Civil Rights Movement (1954–68)|African-American Civil Rights Movement]]. Valdery blogs for the Times of Israel. Valdary says that she became interested in Israel after viewing ''[[Freedom Writers]]'', a 2007 film about a teacher who uses material about the [[Holocaust]] to help her inner-city students understand the racism they face in their own lives. She regards Pastor [[Dumisani Washington]] of [[Christians United for Israel]] and Brooke Goldstein of [[The Lawfare Project]] as her mentors in pro-Israel activism. According to Pennsylvanian State Representative [[Anthony Hardy Williams]] and others, Valdary was subjected to racist attacks by prominent voices in the "anti-Israel" movement who favor [[Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions]] of the Jewish State. [[Tikun Olam (blog)|Tikun Olam]] blogger [[Richard Silverstein]] wrote that Valdary (who is African-American) was a “house slave” and that the “Israel Lobby is her Master” while adding that “They finally did it: found a [[Negro]] Zionist: [[Uncle Tom]] is dancin’ for joy!” Another critic, [[Max Blumenthal]] described Valdary as “beyond sickening” and “irrationally hateful” and a “non-Jew” who represents “the future of Zionism.”{{cite news|last1=Williams|first1=Anthony|title=The Racism of the Israel Bashers|url=http://nypost.com/2014/04/11/the-racism-of-the-israel-bashers/|accessdate=28 October 2014|work=New York Post|date=11 April 2014}}[http://legalinsurrection.com/2014/04/stand-with-chloe-simone-valdary/ Stand with Chloé Simone Valdary] by William A. Jacobson ''[[Legal Insurrection]]'', Sunday, April 13, 2014. Valdary has written articles for [[The Jewish Press]], CAMERA on Campus, [[The Times of Israel]], and [[Israel National News]].[http://www.huffingtonpost.com/chloa-simone-valdary/ Chloé Simone Valdary], Biography, [[Huffington Post]]. ==Political views== * On racism in Israel: “Israeli society, like any other society, has issues with discrimination, but in terms of systematic discrimination, like apartheid in Africa or Jim Crow, that does not exist in Israeli society.” * On two-state solution: "Valdery opposes a two-state solution, favoring a 'Jewish one-state solution' in which all citizens in Israel and its territories can vote, but 'the culture, the personality' of Israel is Jewish." ==External Links== *[http://www.commdiginews.com/life/chloe-simone-valdary-freedom-fighter-zionist-african-american-21572/ Chloe Simone Valdary: Freedom Fighter, Zionist, African American], interview with Sheryl Kay, ''Communities Digital News'', July 14, 2014. ==References== {{reflist}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Valdary, Chloe}} [[Category:American Christian Zionists]] [[Category:21st-century African-American activists]] [[Category:People from New Orleans, Louisiana]]", "List of presidential schools in the United States{{no references|date=October 2014}} A '''presidential school''' is a [[college|university school]] named after a [[president of the United States]]. {| class="wikitable sortable" style="margin: auto" ! School ! University ! Named after ! MIR ! MPAdm ! MPP ! Joint JD ! Joint MBA |- | [[Bush School of Government and Public Service]] | [[Texas A&M University]] | [[George H. W. Bush]] | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} |- | [[Clinton School of Public Service]]{{efn|The Clinton School is the first school in the United States to offer a master's degree specifically in public service rather than traditional degrees in public affairs.}} | [[University of Arkansas]] | [[Bill Clinton]] | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} |- | [[Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy|Ford School of Public Policy]] | [[University of Michigan]] | [[Gerald R. Ford]] | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} | {{na}} |- | [[John F. Kennedy School of Government|Harvard Kennedy School]] | [[Harvard University]] | [[John F. Kennedy]] | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} |- | [[Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs|LBJ School of Public Affairs]]{{efn|The Lyndon School grants degrees specialized in non-traditional subjects such as "public affairs" and "global policy studies".}} | [[University of Texas at Austin]] | [[Lyndon B. Johnson]] | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} |- | [[Lincoln Law School of Sacramento]] | ''independent'' | [[Abraham Lincoln]] | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} |- | [[Lincoln Law School of San Jose]] | ''independent'' | [[Abraham Lincoln]] | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} |- | [[Thomas Jefferson School of Law]] | ''independent'' | [[Thomas Jefferson]] | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} |- | [[Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs]] | [[Princeton University]] | [[Woodrow Wilson]] | {{na}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{ya}} | {{na}} |} ==Notes== {{notelist|2}} ==References== {{reflist|2}} [[Category:Presidential schools in the United States| ]] [[Category:Public administration schools in the United States]] [[Category:Public policy schools]] [[Category:Schools of international relations in the United States]]", "Mage wappa#REDIRECT [[Magewappa]]", "5550 BC#redirect [[6th millennium BC]]", "General interest channel#REDIRECT [[Generalist channel]]", "Trigonuncus sarobialis#REDIRECT[[Pyrausta sarobialis]]", "Template:Did you know nominations/Operation Triangle[[Category:Passed DYK nominations from November 2014]]
:''The following is an archived discussion of the DYK nomination of the article below. '''Please do not modify this page.''' Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page (such as [[{{TALKPAGENAME}}|this nomination's talk page]], [[Talk:{{SUBPAGENAME}}|the article's talk page]] or [[Wikipedia talk:Did you know]]), unless there is consensus to re-open the discussion at this page. '''No further edits should be made to this page'''.'' The result was: '''promoted''' by [[User:97198|97198]] ([[User talk:97198|talk]]) 00:41, 16 November 2014 (UTC)
{{DYK conditions}} ====Operation Triangle==== {{DYK nompage links|nompage=Operation Triangle|Operation Triangle}} * ... that [[Lyndon Johnson]] approved '''[[Operation Triangle]]''' in [[Laos]] the month before the [[Vietnam War]] began? (99/121) :* '''ALT1''':... that U.S. President [[Lyndon Johnson]] approved '''[[Operation Triangle]]''' the month before the [[Tonkin Gulf Incident]] began the [[Vietnam War]]? (125/150) :* '''ALT2''':... that U.S. President [[Lyndon Johnson]] approved '''[[Operation Triangle]]''' the month before the [[Tonkin Gulf Incident]]? (107/124) :* '''ALT3''':... that [[Lyndon Johnson]] approved '''[[Operation Triangle]]''' the month before the [[Tonkin Gulf Incident]]? (94/114) :* ''Reviewed'': [[Template:Did you know nominations/Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey|Fitzsimmons vs. Sharkey]] :* ''Comment'': [[Lyndon Johnson]] became famous for micromanaging military operations during the Vietnam War. Here I am presenting his first such known endeavor, when he oversaw a battle during the [[Laotian Civil War]] before Vietnam even heated up. I have included an embarrassment of riches for the hook, although they are variations on a theme. I even have supplied both the visible and edit view character counts for the reviewer. Enjoy. Created by [[User:Georgejdorner|Georgejdorner]] ([[User talk:Georgejdorner|talk]]). Self nominated at 18:18, 3 November 2014 (UTC). :* [[File:Symbol question.svg|16px]] The article history shows that this article was created in a single edit, with the edit summary "Import extensive article with references". Where was it imported from? [[User:Cambalachero|Cambalachero]] ([[User talk:Cambalachero|talk]]) 14:48, 4 November 2014 (UTC) ::* My workspace. :::* Can you add a link to it? You have several workspaces [[User:Cambalachero|Cambalachero]] ([[User talk:Cambalachero|talk]]) 13:28, 6 November 2014 (UTC) ::::* While I wrote it in Work Area 6, I have since deleted it from there.[[User:Georgejdorner|Georgejdorner]] ([[User talk:Georgejdorner|talk]]) 16:13, 6 November 2014 (UTC) *The historical significance of the matter is best highlighted by ALT1, though I'd suggest "that US President Lyndon Johnson" [[User:EEng|EEng]] ([[User talk:EEng|talk]]) 06:27, 6 November 2014 (UTC) :* Guess I was a bit provincial there, thinking that everyone would know I meant an American president. I have added "U.S." to both hooks.[[User:Georgejdorner|Georgejdorner]] ([[User talk:Georgejdorner|talk]]) 16:13, 6 November 2014 (UTC) * [[File:Symbol confirmed.svg|16px]] I prefer ALT1. It is noteworthy to remind that the Tonkin Gulf Incident started the Vietnam War. I don't think it's so important to remind people that Lyndon Johnson was a US president, I think that he's a historical figure whose name is introduction enough, but doing so will not make any harm either (and there's always the chance that someone around there ignores who was Johnson) [[User:Cambalachero|Cambalachero]] ([[User talk:Cambalachero|talk]]) 13:34, 10 November 2014 (UTC) :*[[File:Symbol redirect vote 4.svg|16px]] This review only discusses the hook; it does not mention any other DYK criteria such as newness, length, referencing, neutrality, close paraphrasing, or inline citation for the hook. [[User:Yoninah|Yoninah]] ([[User talk:Yoninah|talk]]) 23:55, 10 November 2014 (UTC) ::* Indeed. Could I have a real reviewer, please?[[User:Georgejdorner|Georgejdorner]] ([[User talk:Georgejdorner|talk]]) 16:01, 12 November 2014 (UTC) ::** [[File:Symbol question.svg|16px]] Long enough (12,864 characters), new enough (created by Georgejdorner on November 3, 2014). QPQ done. Some problems: (1) There are bare URLs in the references. (2) I cannot find Johnson's explicit approval in the article or its sources. [[User:Hawkeye7|Hawkeye7]] ([[User talk:Hawkeye7|talk]]) 08:12, 15 November 2014 (UTC) ::*** The bare URLs are a link to the PDF book I list as the first Reference. Sort of a "belt and suspenders" deal, so the reader can see for their self. However, I could always delete the URLs entirely and use a book reference. ::*** As for LBJ's approval, let me quote from page 140 of Warner: "This took the form of Operation Triangle, a large-scale offensive approved directly by Lyndon Johnson...." On the [[Tonkin Gulf incident]], look to page 141: "On July 30, 1964...South Vietnamese commandos opened fire on a North Vietnamese installation.... A few days later North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked the U.S. destroyer, the ''Maddox''...."[[User:Georgejdorner|Georgejdorner]] ([[User talk:Georgejdorner|talk]]) 16:16, 15 November 2014 (UTC) ::**** [[File:Symbol voting keep.svg|16px]] I have clothed the bare URLs. Hook verified. Good to go. [[User:Hawkeye7|Hawkeye7]] ([[User talk:Hawkeye7|talk]]) 19:55, 15 November 2014 (UTC)
", "Template:I smallsup/doc{{Documentation subpage}} {{Template shortcuts |issup|padlssup}} A version of {{tlpad|I sup}} where the superscripted text is rendered as . The same syntax applies: : {{tc|issup|''text''}} to use the default padding; : {{tc|issup|''N_units''|''text''}} or, using another shortcut, {{tc|padlssup|''N_units''|''text''}}
 for ''N_units'' of padding, where ''N_units'' is a number followed by a display-related unit ([[Em (typography)|em]], [[Pixel|px]], [[Point (typography)|pt]], etc). For example, {{tcpl|padlssup|1px|blah}}. ; {{tnf|{{TEMPLATENAME}}}} {{nobold|(with default padding)}} and {{tl|smallsup}} compared : {{plaincode|[[SS Kroonland|SS ''Kroonland'']]{{issup|2}}}} produces: [[SS Kroonland|SS ''Kroonland'']]{{{{TEMPLATENAME}}|2}} : {{plaincode|[[SS Kroonland|SS ''Kroonland'']]{{smallsup|2}}}} produces: [[SS Kroonland|SS ''Kroonland'']]{{smallsup|2}} ===See also=== * {{tlpad|I sup}} * {{tl|Sup and sub-related templates}} {{#ifeq:{{SUBPAGENAME}}|sandbox | | [[Category:Superscript and subscript templates]] }}
", "Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.
:''The following discussion is an archived debate of the proposed deletion of the article below. '''Please do not modify it.''' Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page (such as the article's [[Help:Using talk pages|talk page]] or in a [[Wikipedia:Deletion review|deletion review]]). No further edits should be made to this page.'' The result was '''no consensus'''. There are relatively strong arguments on both sides of this debate. Those supporting deletion successfully establish the lack of significant third-party coverage, yet those supporting keeping the article note the success of the business, while it does not make the subject ''inherently'' notable, contributes to an argument thereof, and some argue that there are sufficient sources for inclusion (e.g., Ktr101). However, no one is arguing that the article should be deleted solely because it is of low quality, thus refuting one argument by a supporter of keeping. Ultimately, this discussion has gone on for over a month, and I am unconvinced that another seven days will facilitate reaching a consensus, so I will close this discussion as no consensus with no prejudice against a renomination if additional information on either side manifests itself. '''[[User:Go Phightins!|Go]] [[User talk:Go Phightins!|''Phightins'']][[Special:Contributions/Go Phightins!|!]]''' 00:16, 8 December 2014 (UTC) ===[[Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.]]=== :{{la|Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.}} – ([[Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.|View AfD]][[Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Log/2014 November 30#{{anchorencode:Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.}}|View log]]{{int:dot-separator}} [https://tools.wmflabs.org/jackbot/snottywong/cgi-bin/votecounter.cgi?page=Wikipedia:Articles_for_deletion/Beacon_Roofing_Supply,_Inc. Stats]) :({{Find sources AFD|Beacon Roofing Supply, Inc.}}) No sources for significance. Everything here is either from the company website, or a press release, or a mere notice. '''[[User:DGG| DGG]]''' ([[User talk:DGG| talk ]]) 06:05, 4 November 2014 (UTC) *'''Delete'''. As written, fails [[Wikipedia:Notability (companies)]]. PS. Regarding the fact that the company is listed at NASDAQ, per [[WP:LISTED]], it's not enough. Please find proper, reliable sources, add them to the article, and [[WP:ECHO]] me to review them and reconsider my vote once this happens. --[[User:Piotrus|Piotr Konieczny aka Prokonsul Piotrus]]|[[User talk:Piotrus| reply here]] 06:12, 4 November 2014 (UTC) :Note: This debate has been included in the [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Deletion sorting/Business|list of Business-related deletion discussions]]. [[User:Northamerica1000|NorthAmerica]][[User_talk:Northamerica1000|1000]] 11:02, 5 November 2014 (UTC) :Note: This debate has been included in the [[Wikipedia:WikiProject Deletion sorting/United States of America|list of United States of America-related deletion discussions]]. [[User:Northamerica1000|NorthAmerica]][[User_talk:Northamerica1000|1000]] 11:03, 5 November 2014 (UTC) *'''Comment''' Additional references have been added; they continue to be press releases or mere routine mentions; most are simply downright press releases from BusinessWire or reprints of their postings. '''[[User:DGG| DGG]]''' ([[User talk:DGG| talk ]]) 17:08, 6 November 2014 (UTC)
:'''[[WP:RELIST|Relisted]] to generate a more thorough discussion so a clearer consensus may be reached.'''
:Please add new comments below this notice. Thanks, [[User:Northamerica1000|NorthAmerica]][[User_talk:Northamerica1000|1000]] 02:31, 12 November 2014 (UTC)
*'''Weak keep''' Mundane topics like roofing supply companies often don't attract much media hype but notability can be sussed from a broad base of sources. Several third party sources identify metrics which I wouldn't consider "trivial" or "incidental" as per [[WP:CORP|the notability guidline on corporations]] and could even be considered inherently notable, such as [http://finance.yahoo.com/news/beacon-roofing-acquire-mcclure-johnston-130251881.html;_ylt=A0LEVxM23VhU2OwAbvBXNyoA;_ylu=X3oDMTEzY2RxajU3BHNlYwNzcgRwb3MDNgRjb2xvA2JmMQR2dGlkA1ZJUDUzMl8x almost $100 in annual sales], [http://www.prosalesmagazine.com/news/distributors/beacon-roofing-supply-opens-location-no-200_o opening over 200 stores, recording almost $2 billion in total sales] and being a large, publicly traded company. Regardless, the article needs work and it leans far too heavily on press releases and self published primary sources. [[User:GraniteSand|GraniteSand]] ([[User talk:GraniteSand|talk]]) 03:38, 12 November 2014 (UTC) *'''Keep''' per [[WP:LISTED]] given that it has a sufficient number of reliable third party sources for a listed company. [[User:VMS Mosaic|VMS Mosaic]] ([[User talk:VMS Mosaic|talk]]) 05:06, 13 November 2014 (UTC) :::We have never applied LISTED for NASDAQ. I have in past years tried repeatedly to get it accepted, but the consensus has almost always been against it. '''[[User:DGG| DGG]]''' ([[User talk:DGG| talk ]]) 22:44, 20 November 2014 (UTC) *'''Delete with a caveat''' Every ref in the article is a database entry or, more or less, a press release. The closest thing I've found to a [[WP:CORPDEPTH]] compatible article is [http://online.barrons.com/articles/SB52784017629588234037504580170502824412316], which has a few paragraphs of material that attempt depth. But I was unable to find anything in the article itself or this discussion so far that matched it, and the total there is not sufficient. GraniteSand's sources are warmed-over press releases. That the company is NASDAQ-listed does not in my experience demonstrate the existence of good coverage. Still, with a $1B+ market cap, I would guess that coverage may still exist, yet to be found, perhaps in specialized industry periodicals. The topic ''may'' be able to show notability if a sufficiently informed editor has access to appropriate sources and builds an article from them. This is [[WP:TNT|not that article]], and today, so far, is not that day. --[[User:Joe Decker|j⚛e decker]][[User talk:Joe Decker|talk]] 04:08, 21 November 2014 (UTC)
:'''[[WP:RELIST|Relisted]] to generate a more thorough discussion so a clearer consensus may be reached.'''
:Please add new comments below this notice. Thanks, [[User:Deadbeef|Dea]][[User Talk:Deadbeef|db]][[Special:Contributions/Deadbeef|eef]] 10:12, 22 November 2014 (UTC)

:'''[[Wikipedia:Deletion process#Relisting discussions|Relisted]] to generate a more thorough discussion so a clearer consensus may be reached.'''
:Please add new comments below this notice. Thanks, [[User:Samwalton9|'''S'''am '''W'''alton]] ([[User talk:Samwalton9|talk]]) 00:45, 30 November 2014 (UTC)
*'''Comment''' Assuming the primary problem is that the article lacks 3rd-party references, is that normally grounds for deletion? I mean, if it can be made better and satisfy the requirements for keeping it, why delete what has already been started? (I realize there are other concerns about [[WP:N]] as well, this is just a general clarifying question)) [[User:Ultrauber|Ultrauber]] ([[User talk:Ultrauber|talk]]) 05:39, 30 November 2014 (UTC) *'''Strong keep''' - Companies with annual revenue of $2B and major stock market listing are notable. The sourcing in the article is not stellar, but a [https://www.google.com/search?hl=en&gl=us&tbm=nws&authuser=0&q=%22Beacon+Roofing%22&oq=%22Beacon+Roofing%22&gs_l=news-cc.3..43j43i53.2956.3960.0.4260. quick news search] reveals page and page of relevant reliable source coverage. --[[User:ThaddeusB|ThaddeusB]] ([[User talk:ThaddeusB|talk]]) 03:43, 3 December 2014 (UTC) *:BTW, someone should have pinged {{user|Ktr101}} who accepted this at AfC. --[[User:ThaddeusB|ThaddeusB]] ([[User talk:ThaddeusB|talk]]) 03:48, 3 December 2014 (UTC) *'''Keep''' The article is far from perfect, but the revenue of the company and coverage outside of this site is what made me decide that it was notable enough for inclusion on Wikipedia. [[User:Ktr101|Kevin Rutherford]] ([[User talk:Ktr101|talk]]) 03:55, 3 December 2014 (UTC) * '''delete''' having tried various searches I can't come up with any better sources than the ones in the articles, which just aren't good enough: they're either first party or don't have enough depth, being routine coverage of announcements, especially financial announcements. But as already noted simply being listed on NASDAQ isn't enough for notability. I don't see any reliable coverage that doesn't follow from it being a largish listed company.--[[User:JohnBlackburne|JohnBlackburne]][[User_talk:JohnBlackburne|words]][[Special:Contributions/JohnBlackburne|deeds]] 04:46, 4 December 2014 (UTC) *:Really? CORP/LISTED specifically cites analyst reports as examples of coverage that is sufficient to establish notability. A simple news search (which I linked above) returns [http://www.zacks.com/stock/news/155444/beacon-roofing-becn-falls-on-dismal-q4-amp-2014-earnings this] very indepth analyst report with just 2 weeks ago as the third link. (There is also a link to get an even more detailed report with free registration to the site.) If you are classifying that, and many similar quality sources in the same news search, as "routine coverage of announcements" I am baffled. Perhaps you only read the headliens are didn't bother to check the actual depth of coverage? --[[User:ThaddeusB|ThaddeusB]] ([[User talk:ThaddeusB|talk]]) 15:57, 4 December 2014 (UTC) *::The point of notability is that parties choose to cover the firm for it's inherent notability. I.e. they find it interesting. Not that they write about it as it's their job as analysts to routinely write, even at length, about a firm because it's publicly traded. That's my problem with the above source and all the others I found.--[[User:JohnBlackburne|JohnBlackburne]][[User_talk:JohnBlackburne|words]][[Special:Contributions/JohnBlackburne|deeds]] 16:33, 4 December 2014 (UTC) *:::That might be your opinion, but notability guidelines disagree. No exclusion of analyst reports is made, and indeed it is specifically cited as material that conveys notability. What you consider boring, routine stuff, people interested in business consider exciting. Business writing normally covers financials (but note most such reports also give background info on what the company does) by people paid to cover financials. That doesn't make it any less reliable or indepth - the actual notability requirements - nor does it make it indiscriminiate (business analsysts/reports do choose what they write about - no one blindly covers every company in existance!). To discount business writing because it is about money is like discounting sports writing because it is about a game or literary writing because it is about a book. --[[User:ThaddeusB|ThaddeusB]] ([[User talk:ThaddeusB|talk]]) 17:31, 4 December 2014 (UTC) ::::You seem confused about "inherent". Things that are "inherently" something carry that attribute without outside input or consideration. In the context of Wikipedia, things which are considered [[WP:IHN|inherently notable]] generally don't require sourcing to establish a unique or independent notability, only to establish that they exist within the parameters which establish that inherent notability. [[User:GraniteSand|GraniteSand]] ([[User talk:GraniteSand|talk]]) 02:41, 5 December 2014 (UTC) :''The above discussion is preserved as an archive of the debate. '''Please do not modify it.''' Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page (such as the article's [[Help:Using talk pages|talk page]] or in a [[Wikipedia:Deletion review|deletion review]]). No further edits should be made to this page.
", "Rurala Road railway station{{Infobox station | name = Rurala Road railway station | image = | image_caption = | type = | coordinates = {{coord|31.1988|73.2989|type:railwaystation_region:PK|display=inline,title}} | line = | other = | code = RRLN[http://pakrail.com Official Web Site of Pakistan Railways] | structure = | platform = | levels = | tracks = | parking = | baggage_check = | opened = | owned = [[Ministry of Railways (Pakistan)|Ministry of Railways]] | zone = | former = [[Great Indian Peninsula Railway]] | passengers = | pass_year = | pass_percent = | pass_system = | mmtspassengers= | services = | map_locator = }} '''Rurala Road railway station''' ({{lang-ur|{{Nastaliq|'''رورالا روڈ ریلوے اسٹیشن '''}}}}) is located in [[Pakistan]]. ==See also== * [[List of railway stations in Pakistan]] * [[Pakistan Railways]] ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== *[http://pakrail.com Official Web Site of Pakistan Railways] {{Railway stations in Pakistan |state=expanded}} [[Category:Railway stations in Pakistan]] {{Pakistan-railstation-stub}}", "Ondonsetron#REDIRECT[[Ondansetron]]", "Mullach Clach a' Bhlàir{{Infobox mountain | name = Mullach Clach a' Bhlàir | photo = | photo_caption = | elevation_m = 1019 | elevation_ref = {{cite web |url=http://www.walkhighlands.co.uk/munros/mullach-clach-a-bhlair |title= walkhighlands Mullach Clach a'Bhlair |author= |year=2013 |publisher=walkhighlands.co.uk |accessdate=9 November 2014}} | prominence = ''c.'' 89 m | parent_peak = [[Sgòr Gaoith]] | listing = [[Munro]] | translation = Summit of the Stony Plain | language = [[Scottish Gaelic language|Gaelic]] | pronunciation = | location = [[Moray]] / [[Aberdeenshire]] | range = [[Cairngorms]] | coordinates = {{coord|57.0119|-3.8413|type:mountain_region:GB|format=dms|display=inline,title}} | grid_ref_UK = NN883927 | topo = [[Ordnance Survey|OS]] ''Landranger'' 43 | type = | age = | last_eruption = | first_ascent = | easiest_route = }} '''Mullach Clach a' Bhlàir''' is a [[Munro]] in the [[Cairngorms|Cairngorm]] mountain range of [[Scotland]]. ==Sources== {{Reflist}} {{Scottish Munros section 8}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Beinn A' Bhuird}} [[Category:Munros]] {{Scotland-geo-stub}}", "Category:1905 establishments in Taiwan{{estcatCountry|190|5|Taiwan}}", "File:Ernst Deutsch in 'Von morgens bis mitternachts'.jpg==Summary== {{Non-free use rationale 2 |Description = Ernst Deutsch as the Cashier in the 1920 silent film 'Von morgens bis mitternachts' |Source = Youtube |Date = 1920 |Author = Karlheinz Martin |Article = From Morn to Midnight |Purpose = Ernst Deutsch as the Cashier in the 1920 silent film 'Von morgens bis mitternachts' |Replaceability = n.a. |Minimality = Screenshot extracted from the film |Commercial = n.a. }} ==Licensing== {{Non-free film screenshot}}", "Draft:Arian Agushi{{AFC submission|t||ts=20141111203954|u=|ns=118}} arian agushi ==References== {{reflist}} * * * *", "67P/C–G#REDIRECT[[67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko]] {{R from abbr}}", "RoTK 8#redirect [[Romance of the Three Kingdoms VIII]] {{R from abbreviation}}", "Leland Jenks#REDIRECT [[Leland H. Jenks]]", "Template:Did you know nominations/Robespierre Monument (Moscow)[[Category:Passed DYK nominations from November 2014]]
:''The following is an archived discussion of the DYK nomination of the article below. '''Please do not modify this page.''' Subsequent comments should be made on the appropriate discussion page (such as [[{{TALKPAGENAME}}|this nomination's talk page]], [[Talk:{{SUBPAGENAME}}|the article's talk page]] or [[Wikipedia talk:Did you know]]), unless there is consensus to re-open the discussion at this page. '''No further edits should be made to this page'''.'' The result was: '''promoted''' by [[User:97198|97198]] ([[User talk:97198|talk]]) 11:28, 22 November 2014 (UTC)
{{DYK conditions}} ====Robespierre Monument (Moscow)==== {{DYK nompage links|nompage=Robespierre Monument (Moscow)|Robespierre Monument (Moscow)}} * ... that the '''[[Robespierre Monument (Moscow)|Robespierre Monument]]''' erected in Moscow in 1918 was made of concrete and had collapsed four days later? :* Created by [[User:Stamboliyski|Stamboliyski]] ([[User talk:Stamboliyski|talk]]). Nominated by [[User:Innotata|Innotata]] ([[User talk:Innotata|talk]]) at 06:12, 15 November 2014 (UTC). :* [[File:Symbol question.svg|16px]] The hook facts need an inline citations for the concrete, the date/year of erection and the 7th November date, or three days (or should it be four?). At the moment the article just says "a few days". [[User:Cwmhiraeth|Cwmhiraeth]] ([[User talk:Cwmhiraeth|talk]]) 19:40, 19 November 2014 (UTC) ::*{{ping|Stamboliyski}} I assume the sources listed very all these facts, eh? I guess they should be given at the end of each sentence used for the hook or whatever… —[[User talk:Innotata|''innotata'']] 04:29, 20 November 2014 (UTC) :::*That's how I intended it, yes. As for the days, it was raised on the 3rd, and collapsed sometime during the night between 6 and 7 November, so I counted it as three. [[User:Stamboliyski|Stamboliyski]] ([[User talk:Stamboliyski|talk]]) 10:47, 20 November 2014 (UTC) ::::*The collapsing monument is interesting but the hook facts need inline citations according to DYK rules. If Stamboliyski does not want to add any further citations, how about this alternative hook that is already fully cited: [[User:Cwmhiraeth|Cwmhiraeth]] ([[User talk:Cwmhiraeth|talk]]) 19:02, 20 November 2014 (UTC) :::::*{{ping|Cwmhiraeth}} I think Stamboliyski has confirmed that there are inline citations, and I've made them more dense as DYK criteria suggest. —[[User talk:Innotata|''innotata'']] 03:55, 21 November 2014 (UTC) :*'''ALT1''' ... that the '''[[Robespierre Monument (Moscow)|Robespierre Monument]]''' in Moscow was commissioned by [[Vladimir Lenin|Lenin]] as part of his "[[monumental propaganda]]" plan? ::*Well, "monumental propaganda" is sadly a very poor article. I don't know how I feel about linking to it. [[User:Stamboliyski|Stamboliyski]] ([[User talk:Stamboliyski|talk]]) 19:30, 20 November 2014 (UTC) :*[[File:Symbol voting keep.svg|16px]] This article is new enough and long enough. The original hook facts are now fully cited. The article is neutral but I could not access any of the sources to check for close paraphrasing. Because of the uncertainty of whether the statue collapsed on day 3 or day 4, I thought it safest to tweak the hook. [[User:Cwmhiraeth|Cwmhiraeth]] ([[User talk:Cwmhiraeth|talk]]) 06:21, 21 November 2014 (UTC)
", "Bill Dixon in Italy Volume One{{Infobox album | | Name = Bill Dixon in Italy Volume One | Type = Studio | Artist = [[Bill Dixon]] | Cover = Bill Dixon in Italy Volume One.jpg | Released = 1980 | Recorded = June 11-13, 1980
Barigozzi Studios, Milano | Genre = [[Jazz]] | Length = 41:35 | Label = [[Black Saint/Soul Note|Soul Note]]
SN 1008 | Producer = Giovanni Bonandrini | Chronology = [[Bill Dixon]] | Last album = ''[[Considerations 2]]''
(1980) | This album = '''''Bill Dixon in Italy Volume One'''''
(1980) | Next album = ''[[Bill Dixon in Italy Volume Two]]''
(1981) }} '''''Bill Dixon in Italy Volume One''''' is an album by American jazz trumpeter [[Bill Dixon]] recorded in Milan in 1980 and released on the Italian [[Black Saint/Soul Note|Soul Note]] label.Stubenrauch, R., [http://www.oocities.org/bourbonstreet/quarter/7055/Dixon/Disko-Dixon.htm#12 Bill Dixon discography] accessed November 16, 2014 ==Reception== {{Album ratings | rev1 = [[AllMusic]] | rev1Score = {{rating|4|5}} }} In his review for [[AllMusic]], Ron Wynn states "a rare release that showed why he is so admired by musicians and has such a tough time getting recorded. The four songs contain no prominent beats or riffs, catchy hooks, sentimental melodies, or enticing devices... Even the shorter pieces have exacting unison statements and prickly solos. An unfolding, unpredictable musical dialogue."{{allmusic|last=Wynn|first=Ron|class=album|id=mw0000112929|title=Bill Dixon - ''In Italy, Vol. 1'': Review|accessdate=November 18, 2014}} ==Track listing== :''All compositions by Bill Dixon'' # "Summer Song One: Morning" - 4:10 # "Firenze" - 4:45 # "Summer Song Two: Evening" - 12:45 # "For Cecil Taylor" - 19:55 ==Personnel== *[[Bill Dixon]] - [[trumpet]], [[piano]] *Arthur Brooks, Stephen Haynes - trumpet *Stephen Horenstein - [[tenor saxophone]], [[baritone saxophone]] *[[Alan Silva]] - [[double bass|bass]] *[[Freddie Waits]] - [[drum kit|drums]] ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:1980 albums]] [[Category:Bill Dixon albums]] [[Category:Black Saint/Soul Note albums]]
", "1946–47 Huddersfield Town F.C. season#REDIRECT [[1946–47 Huddersfield Town A.F.C. season]] {{R from move}}", "Liberal Christian Alliance#REDIRECT [[Christian Liberal Alliance]]", "Mike Strong (baseball)#REDIRECT [[Milwaukee Brewers minor league players#Michael Strong]]", "SR 13 (OH)#REDIRECT[[Ohio State Route 13]]", "All American Chump{{Infobox film | name = All American Chump | image = All American Chump.jpg | alt = | caption = | director = [[Edwin L. Marin]] | producer = Michael Fessier
[[Lucien Hubbard]] | screenplay = Lawrence Kimble | starring = [[Stuart Erwin]]
[[Robert Armstrong (actor)|Robert Armstrong]]
[[Betty Furness]]
[[Edmund Gwenn]]
[[Harvey Stephens]] | music = [[William Axt]] | cinematography = [[Charles G. Clarke]] | editing = Frank E. Hull | studio = [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer]] | distributor = Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer | released = {{Film date|1936|10|16}} | runtime = 63 minutes | country = United States | language = English | budget = | gross = }} '''''All American Chump''''' is a 1936 American [[comedy film]] directed by [[Edwin L. Marin]] and written by Lawrence Kimble. The film stars [[Stuart Erwin]], [[Robert Armstrong (actor)|Robert Armstrong]], [[Betty Furness]], [[Edmund Gwenn]] and [[Harvey Stephens]]. The film was released on October 16, 1936, by [[Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer]].{{cite web|url=http://www.tcm.com/tcmdb/title/561747/All-American-Chump/|title=All American Chump (1936) - Overview - TCM.com|work=Turner Classic Movies|accessdate=23 November 2014}}{{cite web|url=http://movies.tvguide.com/all-american-chump/111330|title=All-American Chump|work=TV Guide|accessdate=23 November 2014}} ==Plot== {{Section empty|date=November 2014}} == Cast == *[[Stuart Erwin]] as Elmer Lamb *[[Robert Armstrong (actor)|Robert Armstrong]] as Bill Hogan *[[Betty Furness]] as Kitty Crane *[[Edmund Gwenn]] as Jeffrey Crane *[[Harvey Stephens]] as Jim Crawford *[[Edward Brophy]] as Pudgy Murphy *[[E. E. Clive]] as J. Montgomery Brantley *[[Dewey Robinson]] as Al *Eddie Shubert as Butch *[[Spencer Charters]] as Abiah Smith == References == {{reflist}} == External links == * {{IMDb title|0027272|All American Chump}} {{Edwin L. Marin}} [[Category:1936 films]] [[Category:American films]] [[Category:English-language films]] [[Category:American comedy films]] [[Category:1930s comedy films]] [[Category:Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer films]] [[Category:Films directed by Edwin L. Marin]] {{1930s-comedy-film-stub}}
", "Category:1822 establishments in Missouri{{EstcatUSstate|182|2|Missouri}}", "Viktor Tikhonov'''Viktor Tikhonov''' or '''Victor Tikhonov''' may refer to the following people *[[Viktor Mykolayovych Tikhonov]] (born 1949), Ukrainian politician, [[Ukrainian parliamentary election, 2012|member of parliament]] and former ambassador *[[Viktor Tikhonov (ice hockey, born 1930)]] (1930–2014), Soviet ice hockey player and coach *[[Viktor Tikhonov (ice hockey, born 1988)]], Russian ice hockey player, grandson of Viktor Vasilyevich Tikhonov (1930–2014) {{hndis}}", "Wikipedia:Today's articles for improvement/2014/52/pictureFile:Polarlicht 2.jpg", "Constituency PS-46 (Hyderabad-IV){{Infobox constituency |type=[[Province|Provincial]] |name=PS-46 (Hyderabad-IV) |year= |abolished= |parl_name=[[Provincial Assembly of Sindh]] |member= |image= |map1= |map2= |map3= |region= |elects_howmany= |electorate= |previous= |next= }} '''PS-46 (Hyderabad-IV)''' is a constituency of the [[Provincial Assembly of Sindh]]. ==General Elections 2013== {| class="wikitable sortable" |- ! Contesting Candidates !! Party Affiliation !! Votes Polled |- | || || |} {{Empty section|date=December 2014}} ==General Elections 2008== {| class="wikitable sortable" |- ! Contesting Candidates !! Party Affiliation !! Votes Polled |- | || || |} {{Empty section|date=December 2014}} ==See also== {{portal|Sindh|Pakistan}} * [[Sindh]] ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== * [http://ecp.gov.pk/ERConsolidated2013/AllResultsFull2013.aspx?assemblyid=PS Election commission Pakistan]'s official website * [http://www.awaztoday.com/result.aspx?pageId=700 Awazoday.com] check result * [http://www.pas.gov.pk/index.php/home/en Official Website] of Government of Sindh {{Constituencies of Sindh Assembly}} [[Category:Constituencies of Sindh]] {{Pakistan-constituency-stub}}", "9283 Martinelvis#REDIRECT [[List of minor planets: 9001–10000]]", "Society for Experimental Mechanics{{Infobox Non-profit | Non-profit_name = Society for Experimental Mechanics | Non-profit_logo = File:SEM Logo.jpg | Non-profit_type = Professional Organization | founded_date = 1943 [http://www.sem.org/PDF/sem_history27_2.pdf] | founder = | location = [[Bethel, CT]] | origins = | key_people = Kristin Zimmerman (Acting Executive Director) | leader_title = President | leader_name = Nancy Sottos | area_served = Worldwide | focus = Experimental [[Mechanics]] | method = Conferences, Publications | revenue = | endowment = | num_volunteers = | num_employees = | num_members = 1,600 | owner = | Non-profit_slogan = | homepage = www.sem.org | tax_exempt = | dissolved = | footnotes = }} '''Society for Experimental Mechanics (SEM)''' is a professional organization for engineers and scientists studying the design and implementation of experiments to characterize materials, structures, and systems. Formed in 1943 as the Society for Experimental Stress Analysis (SESA), early work focused on methods such as [[photoelasticity]] and [[Strain gauge|strain gages]].http://www.sciencemag.org/content/119/3096/local/ed-board.pdf Society historical records refer to the society as SESA through the 1984 Fall SESA meeting in Milwaukee, WIhttp://www.sem.org/PDF/sem_history28_2.pdf and start referring the society as SEM with the 1985 Spring SEM meeting in Las Vegas, NV.http://www.sem.org/PDF/ETHistJF05.pdf The society has expanded to included topics including [[modal analysis]], [[digital image correlation]], [[Split-Hopkinson pressure bar|Split Hopkinson pressure bar]], [[Residual stress]], and [[biomaterial]]s. ==Technical Divisions== The society comprises seventeen technical divisions that program sessions at either the SEM Annual Conference or IMAC Conference, and develop content for publications:http://www.sem.org/technicaldivisions.asp * Applied Photoelasticity * Biological Systems and Materials * Dynamics of Civil Structures * Composite, Hybrid & Multifunctional Materials * Dynamic Behavior of Materials * Fracture and Fatigue * Inverse Problem Methodologies * MEMS and Nanotechnology * Modal Analysis * Model Validation & Uncertainty Quantification * Optical Methods * Residual Stress * Technical Committee on Strain Gages * Thermomechanics and Infrared Imaging * Time Dependent Materials * Sensors and Instrumentation * The Western Regional Strain Gage Committee ==Publications== SEM publishes proceedings volume from the SEM Annual Conference and IMAC Conference with its publishing partner [[Springer Science+Business Media]]. SEM-published journals include: * ''[[Experimental Mechanics]],'' which prints 9 issues annual of peer-reviewed manuscripts on advances in experimental mechanics * Experimental Techniques, which is a bimonthly publication on the development and application of experimental mechanics techniques. ==References== {{reflist|2}} ==External links== * [http://www.sem.org Society for Experimental Mechanics Home Page] {{DEFAULTSORT:Society for Experimental Mechanics}} [[Category:Engineering societies]]", "Template:Cite pmid/8202358{{Cite journal | pmid = 8202358 | pmc = 308034 | year = 1994 | author1 = Kegler-Ebo | first1 = D. M. | title = Codon cassette mutagenesis: A general method to insert or replace individual codons by using universal mutagenic cassettes | journal = Nucleic acids research | volume = 22 | issue = 9 | pages = 1593-9 | last2 = Docktor | first2 = C. M. | last3 = Dimaio | first3 = D }}{{Documentation|Template:cite_pmid/subpage}}", "List of Grand Canyon Antelopes men's basketball head coachesThe following is a '''list of Grand Canyon Antelopes men's basketball head coaches'''. The [[Grand Canyon Antelopes men's basketball|Lopes]] have had 12 coaches in their 64-season history. The team is currently coached by [[Dan Majerle]].{{cite web | url=http://gculopes.com/documents/2014/10/24//Year_by_Year258.pdf?id=4763 | title=GCU Men's Basketball Year-by-Year | publisher=GCULopes.com | accessdate=November 30, 2014}} {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" !style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}}"|Tenure !style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}}"|Coach !style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}}"|Years !style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}}"|Record !style="{{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}}"|Pct. |- | 1949-50 || Howard Mansfield || 1 || 0–8 || .000 |- | 1950-60 || Dave Brazell || 10 || 114-96 || .543 |- | 1960-61 || Don Reed || 1 || 12-10 || .545 |- | 1961-65 || Dave Brazell (2nd time) || 4 || 39-49 || .443 |- | 1965-81 || [[Ben Lindsey (basketball)|Ben Lindsey]] || 16 || 317-137 || .698 |- | 1981-83 || Jay Arnote || 2 || 40-19 || .678 |- | 1983-86 || [[John Shumate]] || 3 || 58-33 || .637 |- | 1986-90 || [[Paul Westphal]] || 4 || 114-33 || .776 |- | 1990-2004 || Leighton McCrary || 14 || 217-177 || .551 |- | 2004-08 || Scott Mossman || 4 || 65-47 || .580 |- | 2008-09 || Dan Nichols || 1 || 13–14 || .481 |- | 2009-13 || [[Russ Pennell]] || 4 || 72-44 || .621 |- | 2013-Present || [[Dan Majerle]] || 1 || 15–15 || .500 |- style="font-weight:bold; {{CollegePrimaryStyle|Grand Canyon Antelopes|border=0}};" |Totals |12 coaches |64 seasons* |1076–682 | .612 |- |} : An asterisk (*) denotes a season currently in progress. ==References== {{Reflist}} {{Grand Canyon Antelopes men's basketball navbox}} [[Category:Grand Canyon Antelopes men's basketball coaches| ]] [[Category:Lists of college basketball head coaches in the United States|Grand Canyon]]", "Template:Eulepidotinae-stub{{asbox | image = | pix = 40 | subject = | qualifier = on a [[moth]] of the [[Eulepidotinae]] [[subfamily (biology)|subfamily]] | category = Erebidae stubs | tempsort = Eulepidotinae | name = Template:Eulepidotinae-stub }}", "Category:Industrial rock EPs{{catmore|industrial rock}} [[Category:Industrial EPs|*Rock]] [[Category:Rock EPs|*Industrial]]", "Whitney och Elton Johansson{{Infobox radio show | show_name = Whitney och Elton Johansson | image = | imagesize = | caption = | format = [[children's radio|children]] | runtime = | country = [[Sweden]] | language = [[Swedish language|Swedish]] | home_station = [[Sveriges Radio P3|SR P3]] | syndicates = | presenter = | starring = [[Maja Gödicke]], [[Jacob Rippe]], [[Gunilla Johansson]], [[Jan Rippe]] | announcer = | creator = | writer = [[Per Umaerus]], [[Henrik Wallgren]] | director = Per Umaerus, Henrik Wallgren | senior_editor = | editor = | producer = | exec_producer = | narrated = | rec_location = | rem_location = | oth_location = | first_aired = {{Start date|df=yes|2002|12|01}} | last_aired = {{Start date|df=yes|2002|12|24}} | num_series = | num_episodes = 24 | audio_format = | opentheme = | othertheme = | endtheme = | sponsor = | website = | podcast = }} '''Whitney och Elton Johansson''' was the 2002 edition of [[Sveriges Radio's Christmas Calendar]].{{cite web|url=http://smdb.kb.se/catalog/search?q=%22Whitney+och+Elton%22+typ%3Aradio&sort=OLDEST|title=Whitney och Elton Johansson|publisher=Svensk mediedatabas|language=Swedish|date=2002|accessdate=5 April 2011}} ==Plot== Svenne Svennesson runs the Svenne Tower, a high-rise building which serves as the headquarters for his music company, there the recording artists also live.{{cite web|url=http://sverigesradio.se/barn/julkalendrar/kalender_text/2002_text.html|title=Whitney och Elton Johansson|publisher=Sveriges Radio|language=Swedish|date=2002|accessdate=4 December 2014}} ==Music== Music plays an important role in the story. The music was released to [[Compact Disc|CD]] in 2002 by the [[Apparat Records|Apparat]] label, among contributors musicians were [[After Shave (group)|After Shave]] and [[Lok (musikgrupp)|Lok]].{{cite web|url=http://smdb.kb.se/catalog/id/001550874|title=Whitney & Elton Johansson|publisher=Svensk mediedatabas|language=Swedish|date=2002|accessdate=5 April 2011}} The radio series was released to CD by late November 2011. ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:2002 radio programme debuts]] [[Category:2002 radio programme endings]] [[Category:Sveriges Radio's Christmas Calendar]] {{radio-show-stub}} {{Sweden-media-stub}}", "Toni Stuart (author)#REDIRECT [[Toni Stuart]] {{R from move}} {{R from unnecessary disambiguation}}", "Second of angle#REDIRECT [[Minute of arc#Symbols and abbreviations]]", "Category:Kizomba albums{{catmore|kizomba}} [[Category:Dance music albums by genre]]", "Draft:Cotesia Rubecula{{AFC submission|t||ts=20141205235843|u=Yamdish|ns=118}} ==References== {{reflist}} *http://www.uky.edu/~mjshar0/genera/Cotesia/rubecula.html *http://www.entomology.wisc.edu/mbcn/kyf303.html *http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02373518 *", "Category:Boca Raton Bowl{{Cat main|Boca Raton Bowl}} [[Category:College football bowls]] [[Category:Sports in Boca Raton, Florida]] [[Category:American football in Florida]]", "Gynaecological disease#REDIRECT [[Gynaecology#Diseases]]", "File:Screen shot Starflight.png==Summary== {{Non-free use rationale |Article = Starflight: The Plane That Couldn't Land |Description = Screen shot |Portion = all |Low_resolution= yes |Source = ''Starflight: The Plane That Couldn't Land'', screen capture made using Snap N' Drag software [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JbwF50lIp70 Source] |Date=2014 (original film: 1983) |Author=Screenshot |Permission={{PD-US-no notice}} | Purpose=1. This image is being used to illustrate the article on the movie in question and is used for informational or educational purposes only. 2. This image is of low resolution. 3. It is believed that this image will not devalue the ability of the copyright holder to profit from the original work. 4. No alternate, free image exists that can be used to illustrate the subject matter. | Replaceability= No alternate, free image exists that can be used to illustrate the subject matter. |other_versions= }} '''Fair use rationale''' 1. This image is being used to illustrate the article on the movie in question and is used for informational or educational purposes only. 2. This image is of low resolution. 3. It is believed that this image will not devalue the ability of the copyright holder to profit from the original work. 4. No alternate, free image exists that can be used to illustrate the subject matter. ==Licensing== {{Non-free film screenshot|image has rationale=yes}}", "Category:1984 in Chinese television{{Cat main|1984 in Chinese television}} {{Year by category | m = 1 | c = 9 | d = 8 | y = 4 | cat = in Chinese television | sortkey = Chinese television | in = | parent = Years in Chinese television | subcat = 1984 in television }} [[Category:1980s in Chinese television]] [[Category:1984 in China|Television]]", "State Highway Spur 325 (Texas)#REDIRECT[[Texas State Highway Spur 325]]", "List of Malayalam films of 2015{{Expand list|date=December 2014}} {{Malayalam films}} The tables list the [[Malayalam films]] released in theaters in the year [[2015 in film|2015]]. Premiere shows and film festival screenings are not considered as releases for this list. ==Malayalam films== {| class="wikitable" |- bgcolor="#B0E0E6" align="center" ! ''Sl. No:'' ! colspan="2" | '''Opening''' ! width="30%" |'''Title''' ! '''Director''' !! '''Cast''' !! '''Genre''' !! '''Ref''' |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="14" style="text-align:center; background:#ffa07a; textcolor:#000;"|'''J
| rowspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdacc; textcolor:#000;"| 2 |align="center"| ''[[Sand City]]'' || [[Shankar (actor)|Shankar]] || [[Prajin]], Gowtham Krishna, [[Thanishka]], [[Varuna Shetty]] || Family || http://www.nowrunning.com/sand-city-in-kerala/india/kl/16737/movie-showtimes.htm |- ||
2 |align="center"| ''[[Akashangalil]]'' || Rixon Xavier || [[Shankar (actor)|Shankar]], Pooja Vijayan, Renjith Raj, Rakesh Krishna || Family || http://in.bookmyshow.com/buytickets/aakashangalil-hyderabad/movie-hyd-ET00027229-MT/20150107 |- ||
3 |align="center"| ''6'' || Guru Raja || [[Mukesh (actor)|Mukesh]], [[Tini Tom]], [[Guinness Pakru]], [[Baburaj (actor)|Baburaj]] || Comedy || http://www.nowrunning.com/6-in-kerala/india/kl/16755/movie-showtimes.htm |- ||
4 |align="center"| ''At Once'' || Syed Usman || [[Jagadheesh]], [[Indrans]], Badri, Swasika || Romance || http://www.nowrunning.com/at-once-in-kerala/india/kl/13140/movie-showtimes.htm |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="5" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdacc; textcolor:#000;"| 9 |align="center"| ''[[Perariyathavar]] || [[Dr. Biju]] || [[Suraj Venjaramoodu]], [[Indrans]] || Drama || http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/14135/malayalam/perariyathavar/index.htm |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''[[Ellam Chettante Ishtam Pole]] ||Haridas|| [[Manikandan Pattambi]], Balachandran Chullikadu, Sunil Sukhada, Urmila Unni|| Family || http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/16190/malayalam/ellam-chettante-ishtam-pole/index.htm |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''Ammakkoru Tharattu||[[Sreekumaran Thampi]]|| [[Suraj Venjaramoodu]], [[Lakshmi Gopalaswamy]], [[Manju Pillai]], [[Sharada (actress)|Sharada]], [[Madhu]]|| Family || http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/15818/malayalam/ammakkoru-tharattu/index.htm |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''Mayapuri 3D||Mahesh Kesav|| [[Kalabhavan Mani]], Baby Esther, Adil Muhammmed|| Children's film || http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/12206/malayalam/mayapuri/index.htm |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''Village Guys'' ||Shaan|| [[Ashokan (actor)|Ashokan]], Nakshatra, Nirmal Jacob, Dr. Haneesh Khani, Shafi Basheer, Navami || Drama || http://www.nowrunning.com/movie/11687/malayalam/village-guys/index.htm |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdacc; textcolor:#000;"| 23 |align="center"| ''[[Mariyam Mukku]] || [[James Albert]] || [[Fahadh Faasil]], [[Aju Varghese]] , [[Seema G. Nair]] , [[Manoj K. Jayan]] || Romance ||https://www.facebook.com/MariyamMukkuOfficial |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''[[Mili (2015 film)|Mili]] || [[Rajesh Pillai]] || [[Nivin Pauly]], [[Amala Paul]] , [[Saikumar (Malayalam actor)|Sai Kumar]] , [[Sanusha]] || Drama||https://www.facebook.com/milimovieofficial |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''[[Picket 43]] || [[Major Ravi]] || [[Prithviraj Sukumaran|Prithviraj]], [[Javed Jaffrey]] , [[Renji Panicker]] , Anusha || Drama ||http://www.asklaila.com/movie/Nashik/Picket-43/12505/ |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''[[Rasam (film)|Rasam]] || [[Rajeev Nath]] || [[Mohanlal]], [[Indrajith]] , [[Nedumudi Venu]] , [[Varuna Shetty]] || Drama||{{cite web|title=Rasam in MSI|url=http://en.msidb.org/m.php?7598 |publisher=malayalasangeetham|accessdate=2015-01-22|}} |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="1" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdacc; textcolor:#000;"| 30 |align="center"| ''Mashihtandu'' || Anish Urumbil|| [[Balachandran Chullikkadu]], [[Seema G. Nair]], Master Minone || Drama ||http://www.asklaila.com/movie/Mangalore/Mashithandu/12697/ |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="3" style="text-align:center; background:orange; textcolor:#ffdead;"| '''F
| rowspan="2" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdead;"| 6 |align="center"| ''[[Aadu]]'' || Midhun Manuel Thomas || [[Jayasurya]] , [[Saiju Kurup]] , [[Sunny Wayne]] , [[Srinda Ashab]]|| Romantic Comedy|| https://www.facebook.com/AOBJA.Movie |- |valign="center" |
|align="center"| ''Cinema @ PWD Resthouse||V.V Santhosh||[[Manikandan Pattambi]] , [[Mamukoya]] , [[Sreejith Ravi]] || Drama|| http://www.asklaila.com/movie/Surat/Cinema-Pwd-Rest-House/12718/ |- |valign="center" |
| rowspan="1" style="text-align:center; background:#ffdead;"| 13 |align="center"| ''[[Fireman (2015 film)|''Fireman'' (2015 film)]] '' || Dipu Karunakaran || [[Mammootty]] , [[Nyla Usha]] , [[Siddique]] , [[Unni Mukundan]]|| Drama|| https://www.facebook.com/FiremanMalyalamMovie |} * This table will be updated after each new release ==Dubbed Malayalam films== *Ekalavya(Telugu film [[Govindudu Andarivadele]]'s dubbed version) released on 2nd January 2015 Starring [[Ram Charan]] , [[Kajal Aggarwal]] *No.1 (Telugu film [[1: Nenokkadine]]'s dubbed version) released on 30th January 2015 Starring [[Mahesh Babu]] , [[Kriti Sanon]] ==Notable deaths== {| class="wikitable sortable" cellpadding="6" style="width:100%; background:#ffffe0; font-size:95%;" |- style="background:#dae3e7; text-align:center;" | '''Month''' || '''Date''' || '''Name''' || '''Age''' || '''Profession''' || '''Notable films''' |- valign="center" | rowspan="2" style="text-align:center; vertical-align:center;"| '''[[Deaths in January 2014|January]]''' | style="text-align:center; vertical-align:center;"|'''9''' || '''P. K. Kaimal'''
(Thirumeni Pictures) || 93 || Distributor,
Producer || ''Bhoomidevi Pushpiniyayi'' • ''Omanakuttan'' • ''Swantham Enna Padam'' • |- | style="text-align:center; vertical-align:center;"|'''28''' || '''[[Mala Aravindan]]''' {{cite web|title=Mala Aravindan in MSI|url=http://en.msidb.org/displayProfile.php?category=actors&artist=Mala%20Aravindan |publisher=malayalasangeetham|accessdate=2015-01-28|}} || 76 || Actor || ''Thaaraavu'' • ''[[Loose Loose Arappiri Loose]]'' • ''[[Pappan Priyappetta Pappan]]'' • ''[[Sandesam]]'' • ''[[August Club]]'' • |} ==References== {{reflist}} {{s-start}} {{succession box|title=[[List of Malayalam films|Malayalam films]]|before=[[List of Malayalam films of 2014|Malayalam films 2014]]|after= Malayalam films 2016|years='''2015'''|}} {{s-end}} {{Indian film list}} {{2015 films}} [[Category:Lists of Malayalam films by year|2015]] [[Category:2010s Malayalam-language films|2015]] [[Category:Lists of 2015 films by country or language|Malayalam]] [[Category:2015 in Indian cinema|Malayalam]]", "Wikipedia:GLAM/Newcomb Archives and Vorhoff Library/Participants{{Wikipedia:GLAM/Newcomb Archives and Vorhoff Library/Tab header}} Hello! We're happy that you're interested in joining the NAVLSC's project team. Please sign up below so we can keep in touch with our e-volunteers. Please check back soon for updates to our [[Wikipedia:GLAM/Newcomb Archives and Vorhoff Library/To Do|to-do]] list, where we will list existing articles we would like to expand upon and new articles we would like to create. And check back soon for updates to our [[Wikipedia:GLAM/Newcomb Archives and Vorhoff Library/Events|events page]], where we will list upcoming editathons! *'''Explore the NAVLSC's online resources and finding aids''' on the NAVLSC's [http://tulane.edu/newcomb/archives-library.cfm website]. ==NAVLSC project e-volunteers== # [[User:AshLin|AshLin]] ([[User talk:AshLin|talk]]) # [[User:PKM|PKM]] ([[User talk:PKM|talk]]) ==List of NAVLSC staff participants== # {{User|Craub}} ''Only add your name here if you work for the NAVLSC or the Newcomb College Institute'' == Userbox == Once you've signed up, you may optionally place our Userbox on your Wikipedia User page. {{User GLAM NAVLSC}}{{-}} Simply paste '''{{User GLAM NAVLSC}}''' on your User page.", "Tea production in Nepal{{merge with|Nepali tea|discuss=Talk:Nepali tea|date=December 2014}} {{multiple issues| {{Orphan|date=December 2014}} {{advert|date=December 2014}} {{Underlinked|date=December 2014}} }} == Cutivation == Cultivated in hilly areas and in high altitudes is conducive for the highest quality tea.Mishra, N. R., Jang, W. W., Ultra, V. U. J., & Lee, S. C. (2014). ''Status of tea industry in south asia and the potential and challenges of Nepal’s tea production and trade''. Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture, 26(1), 11-19. http://dx.doi.org.subzero.lib.uoguelph.ca/10.12719/KSIA.2014.26.1.11 In [[Nepal]], the Eastern mountainous regions host most of the orthodox (as opposed to crush, tear and curl) tea crops at altitudes approximating 3000–7000 feet above sea level. Nepal has six districts in which Orthodox tea is produced; Ilam, Dhankuta, Kaski, Terhathum, Sindhulpalchok, and Panchthar. Among these districts there are a small number of medium-to-large scale tea estates as well as a large number of small holder farmers. Once the tea plant reaches maturity, its leaves can be harvested around four to five times a year, for many years. The different harvests of tea are called flushes. In Nepal there are four separate flushes in a growing season; first flush, second flush, monsoon flush, and autumn flush.UPASI TRF. (2014). ''Orthodox''. Tamil Nadu, INDIA: UPASI TEA RESEARCH FOUNDATION. http://www.upasitearesearch.org/orthodox/ == History == The Nepalese tea industry was established in large part by the East India Company’s colonization of India. The most reputable region of [[India]] for tea, Darjeeling, introduced hybrid tea plants to Nepal in the mid 1800s. Tea estates became established in the Nepalese regions. Later into the 1900s the Nepalese tea producers acted as suppliers to Darjeeling factories when tea bushes became old and yields decreased. Orthodox tea now provides a source of sustainability for almost 20 000 farmers in Nepal. Farmers are supported by the National Tea and Coffee Development Board created by the Nepalese Ministry of Agriculture.NTCDB. (2013). ''Orthodox tea''. Nepal: National Tea and Coffee Development Board. http://www.teacoffee.gov.np/ A national tea policy was introduced by the NTCDB in 2000 which aimed to create more access to credit and land for farmers producing tea. == Pesticide use == In terms of pesticide use, there is no Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in place.Koirala, P., Dhakal, S., & Tamrakar, A. S. (2009). ''Pesticide application and food safety issue in Nepal''. The Journal of Agriculture and Environment, 10, 111-114. http://www.cabi.org.subzero.lib.uoguelph.ca/isc/FullTextPDF/2010/20103317788.pdf However, in the last decade numerous poisonous chemicals such as monocrotophos, quinalphos, ethion, and phorate have been prohibited (as of May 2005). An Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach is becoming more popular as an alternative to pesticide application. The IPM approach includes the use of bio fertilizers, vermin-compost, and organic farming. The lack of internal regulation of pesticide use adversely affects the commodity in terms of trade potential. ==Economic benefits == The transition from subsistence farming to cash crop farming of orthodox tea provides a benefit to hillside farmers in terms of financial support and involvement in the domestic market. Many traditional farmers have given up subsistence farming and now specialize in solely growing tea. The profits that come from selling tea can then be used to purchase staple foods in a domestic market. The switch from traditional farming to cash cropping has reduced poverty rates among small holder farmers in tea growing. 70% of orthodox tea produced in Nepal in 2006 was by small. Orthodox tea is a profitable crop that is unique to hillside farmers. Forecasts by the NTCDB predict that by 2022 orthodox tea exports will reach 27 million kg, compared to the 2012 figure of 3 million kg. The paired growth in the tea sector will employ approximately 100 000 people. Engagement in over-seas markets will allow Nepali tea producers to capitalize on their product’s high quality and value as a niche product. Nepali orthodox tea is being sold well below premium to bordering countries such as India. A metric ton of Nepali green tea is valued at $1180 in India, but $12000 in the USA. Thus, in order for Nepali farmers and producers of orthodox tea to make the most money from this crop there is a need to export to countries like the USA who pay premium prices for the product. ==Value-added and organic farming== The United States Department of International Development recommended increasing the productivity of tea cultivation in Nepal by updating the out of date machinery that most processing factories currently use.Walker, D. (2011). ''Nepali tea assessment'' : Nepal, economic, agriculture, and trade activity. ( No. AID-367-TO-11-00001).United States Agency for International Development. http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PA00JH33.pdf Other interventions proposed include the introduction of motorized pruning devices to reduce labour and increase productivity with respect to time. A more recent obstacle that is limiting small farmers is the issue of pesticide use and achieving organic certification. The belief in Nepal is that becoming a certified organic farmer, a costly and time consuming process, will yield significant increases in profit However, with organic tea production, yields decrease and labour increases significantly during initial stages of adaptation. In the end, the major problem for most tea farmers in Nepal is that they occupy the primary or secondary industry. Small tea farmers do not have the means to add value to their tea through processing and packaging, they rely on outside agents to purchase their bulk leaves.Mohan, S. (2013). ''Institutions and livelihoods in Nepal’s tea value chain''. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre. http://www.academia.edu/4800391/Institutions_and_Livelihoods_in_Nepals_Tea_Value_Chain_A_Policy_Paper ==References== ==Further reading== *Adhikari, R., & Adhikari, K. (2005). ''Market access barriers to select nepalese agricultural exports''., i-23. http://www.iisd.org/tkn/pdf/tkn_market_access_nepal.pdf [[Category:Nepalese tea]]", "File:Spotify Sessions - Carlos Vives (2014).jpg==Summary== {{album cover fur |Article= Spotify Sessions (Carlos Vives EP) |Use=Infobox |Source= [https://play.spotify.com/album/1t3e3Py0eA1SPRC1vETI3i?play=true&utm_source=open.spotify.com&utm_medium=open Spotify] |Name= Spotify Sessions |Artist= [[Carlos Vives]] |Label= [[Sony Music Latin]] |Graphic Artist= |Item= |Type= |Website= |Owner= |Commentary= |Description= |Portion= The entire cover: because the image is cover art, a form of product packaging, the entire image is needed to identify the product, properly convey the meaning and branding intended, and avoid tarnishing or misrepresenting the image. |Low_resolution= The copy is of sufficient resolution for commentary and identification but lower resolution than the original cover. Copies made from it will be of inferior quality, unsuitable as artwork on pirate versions or other uses that would compete with the commercial purpose of the original artwork. |Purpose= Main infobox. The image is used for identification in the context of critical commentary of the work for which it serves as cover art. It makes a significant contribution to the user's understanding of the article, which could not practically be conveyed by words alone.The image is placed in the infobox at the top of the article discussing the work, to show the primary visual image associated with the work, and to help the user quickly identify the work and know they have found what they are looking for.Use for this purpose does not compete with the purposes of the original artwork, namely the artist's providing graphic design services to music concerns and in turn marketing music to the public. |Replaceability= As musical cover art, the image is not replaceable by free content; any other image that shows the packaging of the music would also be copyrighted, and any version that is not true to the original would be inadequate for identification or commentary. |other_information= Use of the cover art in the article complies with Wikipedia non-free content policy and fair use under United States copyright law as described above. }} ==Licensing== {{Non-free album cover}}", "File:Bryan Hunt, ''Plunge'', 1995, cast bronze, Longhouse Reserve, East Hampton, NY.jpg==Summary== {{Information |Description = Bryan Hunt sculpture, "Plunge," 1995, New York |Source = Sent to me online |Date = November, 2014 |Author = Bryan Hunt |Permission = '''Evidence:''' Will be provided on request. }} ==Licensing== {{PD-author|Bryan Hunt}} {{Category ordered by date|Files licensed by third parties|2014|12|15}}", "Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Feedback/Archive 2014 5{{Talk archive}} == Confirmation window bypass and keeping menu on top after saving == {{tracked|T78491}} Is there a way to make the visual editor save page button save directly, without opening the pop-up window with the edit summary and such, or have another button that does it or an option to check, through personal js or otherwise ? This would be for editing drafts or personal pages where no edit summary is necessary. And is there a way to keep the visual editor menu at the top even after saving, so that when we're far down on a page we don't have to scroll back up (or use the cumbersome shortcut keys) to visual edit again ? [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 14:26, 30 November 2014 (UTC) :Also, can we through personal js or otherwise change "Edit source" to "Edit" and "Edit beta" to "Visual edit" ? [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 15:19, 30 November 2014 (UTC) ::{{Replyto|Cenarium}} Regarding your second question, are there not "Edit source" and "Edit beta" links immediately to the right of ''every'' section heading? These are intended to avoid the problem you describe - having to go to the top of the page to start an editing session. (And since VE doesn't do section-only editing, clicking on "Edit beta", ''anywhere on a page'', opens the entire page for editing with VE.) -- [[User:John Broughton|John Broughton]] [[User talk:John Broughton |(♫♫)]] 04:41, 1 December 2014 (UTC) :::{{ping|John Broughton}} Yes, but there are pages with no sections (or large sections), which isn't often the case for articles but more so for non-article pages (the need was most obvious when I was editing a page like that). There is also that one still has to click on this section editing button, which could be avoided, especially considering the time it takes to load visual editor. So a way to save the changes without leaving visual editor would be most welcome. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 06:05, 1 December 2014 (UTC) [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]], I think that you want the [[WP:keyboard shortcuts#List_of_access_keys|keyboard shortcuts]], which work anywhere on the page. You can change almost any label through CSS. Last I checked, there were no basic help pages to help editors figure out how to do this for themselves, but an inquiry at [[WP:VPT]] is usually successful. This link will show you the names of the objects that you want to change: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Candy&uselang=qqx There is no way to skip the invitation to provide an edit summary, and I'm certain that this is a WONTFIX issue with the product manager. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 10:35, 3 December 2014 (UTC) :{{reply to|Whatamidoing (WMF)}} Shortcuts won't do. I want to remain in visual editor mode after the save. I make edits, I save my edits without leaving visual editor, I edit again, and so on. It would make editing easier and faster, having to use shortcuts is too much of a hassle and it takes too long for visual editor to load. So I think it's a feature that would be very helpful and appreciated, particularly by experienced users. I would suggest a checkbox "stay in visual editor mode after saving". (I would even suggest to have a "visual editor always on" option in preferences, but only further down the line, when performance will have improved.) :Thanks, I know how to hide in css but not how to change a label, so I'll ask at VPT (and I'll update [[WP:CSS#Tips_and_tricks]]). I've tried to hide the edit summary help, minor edit and watch checkboxes and the copyright warning of the window though, and couldn't using css, despite them being hidden in source editing. Is it not possible yet ? :I was not suggesting skipping the window as a feature request, but as something that 'power' users could do using personal js. I've thought of something better though : :I would strongly suggest to offer an option to have the edit summary window and minor edit checkbox (everything else is superfluous, or should be allowed to be hidden) together with the edit window, as in source editing. I see two possibilities, both could be offered and the user would choose according to their preference (mostly based on abundance of vertical space versus horizontal space on their respective platform). Either right below the visual editor menu toolbar, or in another box on the left side of the window where the navigation bar takes lots of unused space. Once again, it's something that could be very appreciated by experienced users, contributing to a wider acceptance of visual editor. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 14:41, 3 December 2014 (UTC) :Just a follow up on relabeling, I don't think this can be done in css, but I've done so in js, using the following : $( 'a', '#ca-edit' ).text( 'Edit' ); $( 'a', '#ca-ve-edit' ).text( 'Visual edit' ) ;. For sections, the visual edit link was harder to replace and I had to use $( 'a', '.mw-editsection' ).text( 'Edit section' ); $( '.mw-editsection-visualeditor' ).html( 'Visual edit' ); . [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 21:51, 3 December 2014 (UTC) :Okay, I've been able to hide the edit summary help, minor edit and watch checkboxes and the copyright warning. They had different ids than those for source editing, I used this in css : .ve-ui-mwSaveDialog-summaryLabel, .ve-ui-mwSaveDialog-license, .ve-ui-mwSaveDialog-options { display: none } . But for everything else (saving without leaving VE and summary window alongside the edit window), I think feature requests would be required. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 22:38, 3 December 2014 (UTC) ::Maybe they're not needed :) It's no secret that at some point VE will allow editors to save some kind of drafts - which would probably work a lot like what you describe. As for the second thing, there's definitely a task in Phab already asking for it. (Links will be provided at some point. Bye for now!) --[[User:Elitre (WMF)|Elitre (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Elitre (WMF)|talk]]) 14:42, 4 December 2014 (UTC) :::{{ping|Elitre (WMF)}} I've found the bug for simultaneous edit summary and edit window, {{phab|T52961}}. :::With regard to saving without leaving visual editor, it's very different from a draft system. When working on an article, editors tend to make several edits in succession rather than a big one for several reasons, the main of those being edit conflicts. This would matter even more in visual editor since resolving conflicts would presumably require wikitext editing, which would defeat the purpose of said visual editor. So there should be a way to save without leaving, the visual editor window should update with the user's edit (and non-conflicting edits by other users). :::I've tried using custom js to reload the visual editor immediately after leaving it, as a script for wikitext editor does, but couldn't get js to work with visual editor, see section below. Anyway, an in-built way would be much more efficient, since it would reload only the updated elements. As a side note, you should probably update [[Template:Editnotices/Page/Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Feedback]] following the move to phabricator. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 22:05, 6 December 2014 (UTC) ::::If "save and stay" is just as slow as "save, exit, and re-open", then will you still want it? [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 20:19, 8 December 2014 (UTC) :::::My point was merely that once the backend code is in place, it can be adapted to what you ask, but yes, it can be added to Phabricator if you want. I think I saw you creating tasks there already? --[[User:Elitre (WMF)|Elitre (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Elitre (WMF)|talk]]) 20:58, 8 December 2014 (UTC) ::::::@Whatamidoing It wouldn't be as good but it would at least avoid having to re-click. But my guess is that some elements wouldn't have to be reloaded so it could be made faster. It's already faster when one edits a page a second time. ::::::@Elitre You mean we should wait for a more stable release before delving into user scripts, same for media viewer ? I'll probably file a bug for saving without leaving VE. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 22:02, 8 December 2014 (UTC) :::::::No, and filing a task sounds great. Let us know if you need help with that. Best, --[[User:Elitre (WMF)|Elitre (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Elitre (WMF)|talk]]) 17:25, 9 December 2014 (UTC) == Can't get custom js to work with visual editor == I've tried using personal js to modify the behavior of the visual editor, but I couldn't make it work. Either it does nothing, or it loads for ever. On the other hand, css works fine. First, how can we check that we're in visual editor mode ? It's been discussed at bugzilla, mainly that visual editor uses "veaction=edit" instead of "action=vedit" which would have allowed wgAction to work. Is there a workaround ? Doing this by testing if a visual editor ui element exists does nothing, and not testing results in an infinite loop. I couldn't find any visual editor related personal scripts, is it not possible at all ? Obviously it would be more than for personal use, this could be very helpful to customize visual editor for the specific needs of a particular wiki. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 21:55, 6 December 2014 (UTC) :I've just updated the page [[Wikipedia:VisualEditor/Customization]], which includes at least one script that you may not be familiar with. -- [[User:John Broughton|John Broughton]] [[User talk:John Broughton |(♫♫)]] 04:01, 8 December 2014 (UTC) ::I've expanded the page and linked it in the [[Wikipedia:VisualEditor/FAQ|FAQ]]. The script relabeling the links runs when viewing a page though, not when using the visual editor. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 05:12, 8 December 2014 (UTC) ::TheDJ added a link to [[mw:VisualEditor gadgets]] which has details on using javascipt with visual editor. I'll take a look. It looks similarly complicated to work with js on [[mw:Extension:MultimediaViewer]]. [[User:Cenarium|Cenarium]] ([[User talk:Cenarium|talk]]) 22:08, 8 December 2014 (UTC) :::I'm pretty sure the editors who got the grant for that project would be still glad to guide you a bit. Eran is always around, and such a helpful guy. --[[User:Elitre (WMF)|Elitre (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Elitre (WMF)|talk]]) 17:27, 9 December 2014 (UTC) == cancel == there is no button to cancel the beta edit as far as I can tell [[User:PM ME URANUS|PM ME URANUS]] ([[User talk:PM ME URANUS|talk]]) 02:38, 12 December 2014 (UTC) == About links == When hovering over the infobox and other locations which have their own sub-editor, you can not access listed links to test whether they are working correctly or not. [[User:Quivico|Quivico]] ([[User talk:Quivico|talk]]) 04:53, 12 December 2014 (UTC) :This is a known problem. In a few months, it should be possible to edit templates as rich text, in which case you should be able to edit the infobox and then click on the link (exactly as if you were clicking on a link in the regular text of an article). Some links may still be inaccessible, e.g., links that are constructed by the template on the basis of a code, but at least most links should be clickable then. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 20:07, 18 December 2014 (UTC) == Edit Beta == Every time I delete a word or change something, it doesn't delete it, it move it to a different spot in the paragraph. Many times it will move the entire paragraph to the next section, but when I click the 'back' arrow to fix it, it doesn't move it back. [[User:Srbuckley|Srbuckley]] ([[User talk:Srbuckley|talk]]) 18:22, 14 December 2014 (UTC) :[[User:Srbuckley|Srbuckley]], thanks for your comment. What I need to know about this is: :# Is it still happening? This week's fixes addressed a similar problem, and may have fixed yours. :# If it's still happening, then what is your web browser (including version number) and operating system? [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 20:09, 18 December 2014 (UTC) == Wikitext [[ == I just read that typing [[ in VE now starts the link dialog, so wanted to test it. Random article ([[Hotel Elfie]]), start typing after the existin text, type [[, it simply disappears. I keep on typing and then the link editor opens, but if I'm a bit fast, it only opens after the second or third character, and the first one(s) are plain text. Anyway, I type my link, choose the target, click done, and continue typing. Oops, I am still inside the link, typing the rest of the sentence in blue? Oh wait, I opened the dialog with [[, I probably have to close it now with ]], makes sense! No, it doesn't, now I have a blue ]] :-( It turns out that whatever I type after I have used "done" on the link selector is not ''actually'' included in the link, it is only shown like this while typing. I only found this out by using the "review your changes" function. Not really "Visual" Editor, but anyway... [[User:Fram|Fram]] ([[User talk:Fram|talk]]) 14:52, 16 December 2014 (UTC) :And some times it autocorrects the display later, and sometimes it doesn't. Also, if you're a fast typist, you can get type [[dog [Return key] before the link inspector realizes what's going on, and the result will be the unlinked, plain-text word ''dog'' (in Firefox; I haven't been able to reproduce this in Safari). :The link-extending problem is not related to the keyboard sequence. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 20:20, 18 December 2014 (UTC) == Problem with editing a table == {{tracked|T85463}} {{tracked|T85464}} At [[Christopher Fowler#Novels and collections]], I was able to edit a cell in the first column, and fill in a blank cell in the third column, using VE. But I couldn't figure out how to edit the blank cell in the fourth column that's near the top of the table. Double-clicking definitely doesn't work (FF, most recent version, on a Mac). Suggestions? -- [[User:John Broughton|John Broughton]] [[User talk:John Broughton |(♫♫)]] 21:24, 14 December 2014 (UTC) :The table structure has no defined fourth cell in this row (a "||" divider is missing). Depending on how VE interprets the syntax that could be a problem, when no editable cell element is prepared. Just a guess though. [[User:GermanJoe|GermanJoe]] ([[User talk:GermanJoe|talk]]) 05:51, 15 December 2014 (UTC) ::{{replyto|GermanJoe}} - Thanks for spotting that problem. After I fixed it, I was able to use VE to fill the (new) cell. ::The larger issue, of course, is whether VE should have identified the discrepancy (one row in the table had three columns, the rest had four). I'm not sure that I'd suggest a warning here, since that implies there would be a relatively easy way for any (novice) editor to fix it. ::What does puzzle me is this: ''Why did VE show the fourth cell in that row as existing'' - that is, why was there a line on the right (east) side of the space where the fourth cell would have been if it in fact existed? To me, that implies that VE isn't correctly interpreting existing code when it builds (visually) the table. Of course, the standard parser isn't correctly interpreting (displaying) that code either. ::So, in the ideal world, VE would ''not'' show the fourth cell in the row as existing; it wouldn't issue a warning; and it ''would'' make it easy for a user to add that fourth cell. -- [[User:John Broughton|John Broughton]] [[User talk:John Broughton |(♫♫)]] 04:28, 16 December 2014 (UTC) :::They recently removed a lot of stuff that "fixed" bad table formatting, mostly because some of the fixes weren't any better than the problems, but also because a couple of editors complained about unexplained changes to the wikitext. (If you're removing invalid wikitext code, some people want to see an edit summary that directly says you're fixing someone else's screw-up, so that they know that you meant to do this. Also, you could end up with a hundred-line diff even if you're only making a single-character change, which can be very irritating.) :::I don't know how you would let people add individual cells, without letting them add individual cells when that was a really bad idea. If Parsoid can figure out that a cell needs to be added, it would make more sense for it to add the (blank) cell. If it can't figure it out reliably, then it also can't let people manually add cells if and ''only'' if that cell ought to be added. :::A "real" solution would be correcting tens (hundreds?) of thousands of pages so that all tables have valid wikitext markup. Another option would be to 'alienate' the content, so that you can't edit anything in the table, and you see a message that says something like, "This table was created with invalid wikitext markup and cannot be edited until repaired in the wikitext editor". [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 20:17, 18 December 2014 (UTC) ::::Not a solution per se, but a possible improvement if auto-fixing is deemed too risky: Initializing the table background with a slightly different color ''before'' creating the cells would clarify the situation a bit for the user. Space inside the table, that is not a valid cell after filling up all available cells, would be shown in the background color instead of plain white. One problem, John mentioned, was that this erroneous space looks exactly like a cell, when only 1 cell is missing. [[User:GermanJoe|GermanJoe]] ([[User talk:GermanJoe|talk]]) 09:08, 21 December 2014 (UTC) :::::The dislay problem appears to be Firefox-only. In Safari, there is no end-of-cell line at the east edge of the table for that row. I've added the "make it possible to fix this!" report separately. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 18:51, 29 December 2014 (UTC) == Can't remove header == In [https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_R._Fairchild_International_Airport&diff=638933390&oldid=637647119 this edit], I had to switch to Wikitext to actually remove the header. VE only would remove the text, leaving an empty header, and if I tried to delete further, it wanted to delete the images above the header (and still not remove the header). I know this was a problem earlier, but it seemed to have been fixed. Windows 7, Firefox 34.0.5''':Jay8g''' [[[User:Jay8g|V]]•[[User talk:Jay8g|T]]•[[Special:Contributions/Jay8g|E]]] 17:58, 20 December 2014 (UTC) :If I am not mistaken, I think you could never remove a header by deleting the text or using backspace etc. To remove it, you have to put your cursor in the header's line and then choose "paragraph" from the drop down menu. '''''[[User:TeamGale|TeamGale]]''''' 18:04, 20 December 2014 (UTC) ::Actually, it turns out that this is only an issue is there is something other than text immediately above the header''':Jay8g''' [[[User:Jay8g|V]]•[[User talk:Jay8g|T]]•[[Special:Contributions/Jay8g|E]]] 00:42, 22 December 2014 (UTC) :::It's [https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=User:Whatamidoing_(WMF)/sandbox&diff=640125155&oldid=638578603 possible]; it's just not easy to see if it worked. You have to remove the entire paragraph, including the line break at the end, not just the words. This is the same model that you use in a word processing document: to get rid of a paragraph including the formatting, you have to select everything ¶, not just the words while leaving the (and all the paragraph-level formatting associated with it) present. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 18:51, 29 December 2014 (UTC) == adding new rows to tables == Using HTML to add rows of tables is a bit cumbersome, so it would be nice if VE had a way of doing this. (Maybe it does, but if so, it is well hidden and not listed under "tables" in the help section.) [[User:Kdammers|Kdammers]] ([[User talk:Kdammers|talk]]) 07:50, 21 December 2014 (UTC) :It can be done. Click on any cell and little arrows will appear at the left and top edges for that row and column. Click on the arrow and you get the option to insert a row or column. [[User:Mike Christie|Mike Christie]] ([[User_talk:Mike Christie|talk]] - [[Special:Contributions/Mike_Christie|contribs]] - [[User:Mike Christie/Reference library|library]]) 13:57, 21 December 2014 (UTC) ::The "Tables" section of the [[WP:VE/UG|User guide]] is, I'm sure (without looking), out of date. When things settle down with table editing (I believe that further changes are imminent), then that would be a good time for someone to update this part of the user guide. -- [[User:John Broughton|John Broughton]] [[User talk:John Broughton |(♫♫)]] 19:33, 25 December 2014 (UTC) :::The appearance (of just about everything) should change here on 7 January. There are quite a few more table-related improvements on the way during January. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 18:56, 29 December 2014 (UTC) == Kudos and a note == {{tracked|T85465}} I just found a couple of nice features I wanted to pass along thanks for. I tried cutting and pasting an image from one place in an article to another, and that worked perfectly. Then I tried cutting and pasting a {{tl|cite book}} template from one article to another article, inside a VE session in both tabs; that worked perfectly too. That last is a great time-saver for me as I re-use refs from article to article all the time. I did notice, however, that the "Reuse" citation option was greyed out within the cite menu when I was editing caption text inside an image. (Windows 7, Chrome.) Is that intentional? I had to add it via wikitext. [[User:Mike Christie|Mike Christie]] ([[User_talk:Mike Christie|talk]] - [[Special:Contributions/Mike_Christie|contribs]] - [[User:Mike Christie/Reference library|library]]) 19:21, 20 December 2014 (UTC) :The answer is "maybe": It may be disabled due to a problem with crashing if you try to paste into a caption that contains a re-used ref. Fundamentally, the problem is probably {{phab|T49344}}, but I've filed it as {{phab|T85465}} so that the specific issue won't be forgotten. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 19:10, 29 December 2014 (UTC) ==Citations inside templates== {{VE Bug2 | description = Citations inside templates incorrect | intention = I have a quote, which I cite, but it doesn't work right | steps = to reproduce: #First create a cquote template and add a quote, and a citation #Then save #Finally outside the cquote try to reference the same reference. It won't be available. Also, if you switch between Read, and Edit (beta) you can see the reference numbers changing. seems reproducable | results = the citations seem to think they're distinct, or not part of the normal list | expectations = number correctly according to page order, and be able to re-use the reference. | site = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:Geneocide/Chris_French | browser = Chrome 39.0.2171.95 m | OS = Windows 7 64-bit | skin = default | notes = also, I can't use the arrow keys in citation or template fields. | workaround = }} [[User:Geneocide|Geneocide]] ([[User talk:Geneocide|talk]]) 00:41, 28 December 2014 (UTC) :This is a known problem. Actually, it's two known problems: :* Speaking as a volunteer, you aren't supposed to be using tht template in the mainspace at all (see the template's documentation page and [[MOS:Blockquote]]). :* Speaking as a staffer, all citations within templates are invisible outside of said template, which throws off the numbering as well as making it impossible to re-use the refs. :In the long-term, {{phab|T49344}} will solve the second problem, but the first problem is best solved by removing the template and using proper blockquote formatting. In VisualEditor, that means typing the quotation out like a regular paragraph, and then choosing "Blockquote" from the "Paragraph" styling menu. [[User:Whatamidoing (WMF)|Whatamidoing (WMF)]] ([[User talk:Whatamidoing (WMF)|talk]]) 19:23, 29 December 2014 (UTC) ::Okay. Thanks. [[User:Geneocide|Geneocide]] ([[User talk:Geneocide|talk]]) 20:19, 29 December 2014 (UTC)", "Template:Ngc10/doc{{Documentation subpage}} == Usage == {{Ngc'''X'''}} displays a {{tlx|NavBar}} with links to all ''[[New General Catalogue]]'' objects from ('''X'''⋅100 − 500) to ('''X'''⋅100 − 1), where '''X''' is a [[Multiple (mathematics)|multiple]] of 5 less than 85. For example: * {{tlx|Ngc5}} displays links from NGC1 to NGC499 * {{tlx|Ngc10}} displays links from NGC500 to NGC999 * {{tlx|Ngc80}} displays links from NGC7500 to NGC7841 == See also == {{cmn|4| * {{tl|Ngc5}} * {{tl|Ngc10}} * {{tl|Ngc15}} * {{tl|Ngc20}} * {{tl|Ngc25}} * {{tl|Ngc30}} * {{tl|Ngc35}} * {{tl|Ngc40}} * {{tl|Ngc45}} * {{tl|Ngc50}} * {{tl|Ngc55}} * {{tl|Ngc60}} * {{tl|Ngc65}} * {{tl|Ngc70}} * {{tl|Ngc75}} * {{tl|Ngc80}} }} {{#ifeq:{{SUBPAGENAME}}|sandbox | | [[Category:Astronomy templates]] }}", "Draft:Daudley Mumbo{{AFC submission|d|nn|u=Reira80|ns=118|reviewer=Becky Sayles|reviewts=20150116150340|decliner=Becky Sayles|declinets=20150116150446|ts=20141219014737}} Daudley Mumbo Birth date: July 1,1993 Birthplace :Kisii,Kenya Position: Attacking Midfielder Appearances: 00 Goals Scored: 00 Joined FC Minneapolis: 20 March, 2014 (N)International: USA FC Minneapolis Debut: 11 May, 2014 V African Tonic Daudley Mogeni Mumbo is a Kenyan-born American soccer player, two-footed speedy attacking middle fielder with an eye of creating chances for strikers and teammates. Tiki taka is his playing style, one may say that the attacking middle fielder is not much of a dribbler but rather makes it up with accurate short passes that create scoring chances. As a youth, he played for Set Green Hills academy, park center high school , PSC Soccer Academy and Prairie seeds academy. Before joining FC Minneapolis Mumbo played with Portugal FC as a middle fielder. He later on joined the Czechoslovakia side, SK Aritma Praha until when he suffered a fatal knee injury that saw him return to the US in the spring of 2014 to sign a Pro Transition Contract with FC Minneapolis. "Mumbo is a promising player so full of football and mystery. I just can't wait to see what he's going to become here at FC Minneapolis" Smith said. Due to his Brazilian playing style, Mumbo has been nick named Daudinho by the FC Minneapolis media, a title that fits him whenever he appears before the ball. http://www.fcminneapolis.com/#!duadley-muambo/c1cyt http://www.fcminneapolis.com/#!Will-Moore-and-Chen-Yifu-score-as-FC-Minneapolis-draws-with-Hazzelwood-Park/c11iu/45ED5E78-0594-4A91-B98E-2B99D0D4DDF6", "Category:Imperial Russian people of Irish descent[[Category:Imperial Russian people by ethnic or national origin|Irish]] [[Category:Russian people of Irish descent]]", "The Chronicles Of Tim Powers#REDIRECT [[The Chronicles of Tim Powers]] {{R from move}}", "Category:Members of the International Steering Committee of the Community of DemocraciesAs listed on http://isc-cd.org/members/. [[Category:Community of Democracies]]", "File:NARANGI ANCHALIK MAHAVIDYALAYA BUILDING.jpeg== Summary == [http://www.narangian.org] == Licensing == {{self|cc-by-sa-3.0|GFDL|migration=redundant}}", "Category:Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers{{catmore|Wikipedia:Authority control}} {{Wikipedia category|hidden=yes|tracking=yes}} {{CategoryTOC}} [[Category:Pages with RKDartists identifiers]] [[Category:Wikipedia articles with authority control information|RKDartists]]", "Los Espartales (Madrid Metro)'''Los Espartales''' is a station on [[Line 12 (Madrid Metro)|Line 12]] of the [[Metro de Madrid|Madrid Metro]]. It is located in fare Zone B1.{{cite web | url=http://www.metromadrid.es/en/viaja_en_metro/red_de_metro/estaciones/index.html | title=Stations | publisher=[[Madrid Metro]] | work=Travel in the Metro | accessdate=9 January 2015}} ==Services== {{s-start|noclear=y}} {{S-rail|title=Madrid Metro}} {{rail line||previous=[[El Bercial (Madrid Metro)|El Bercial]]|next=[[El Casar station|El Casar]]|route=[[Line 12 (Madrid Metro)|Line 12]] |col={{Madrid Metro color|12}} }} {{s-end}} == References == {{reflist|2}} [[Category:Madrid Metro stations]] {{Spain-railstation-stub}} {{Madrid-metro-stub}}", "Category:Ukrainian female fencers[[Category:Female fencers]] [[Category:Ukrainian fencers|Female]] [[Category:Ukrainian sportswomen|Fencers]]", "File:Diecast East German Police Van.jpg==Summary== {{Information |Description = 1/43 Diecast 1968 Barkas B1000 GDR (East German) Volkspolizei Van #IST 048 |Source = Canon T4i |Date = 2015 |Author = [[User:DocumentError|DocumentError]] }} ==Licensing== {{self|GFDL|cc-by-sa-3.0|migration=redundant}}", "Category:1912 archaeological discoveries{{Year by category | m = 1 | c = 9 | d = 1 | y = 2 | cat = archaeological discoveries | sortkey = Archaeological discoveries | in = | parent = Archaeological discoveries by year | subcat = 1912 in science }}", "Euploea alecto#REDIRECT [[Euploea alcathoe]]{{R from alternative scientific name}}", "File:SnotDudleySeptember2005Entrance.png==Summary== {{Information |Description = An image of professional wrestler [[Snot Dudley]] in September 2005. |Source = Originally posted to [[Flickr]] as [https://www.flickr.com/photos/10542402@N06/1189767909/in/set-72157601584565855 DSC04788] |Date = 30 September 2005 |Author = [[Flickr]] user [https://www.flickr.com/photos/10542402@N06/ Mike Kalasnik] |Permission = https://www.flickr.com/photos/10542402@N06/1189767909/in/set-72157601584565855 }} ==Licensing== {{cc-by-sa-3.0}} {{Category ordered by date|Files from freely licensed external sources|2015|01|08}}", "Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives Association#REDIRECT [[Skinner v. Railway Labor Executives Ass'n]] {{R from move}}", "Maglekilde[[Image:Maglekilde.JPG|thumb|200px|Maglekilde]] '''Maglekilde''' is the most powerful of several natural springs in [[Roskilde]], [[Denmark]]. It formerly issued water at a rate of some 90,000 litres per hour but has now dropped to 15,000 litres per hour. A wellhouse was built over the spring in 1927. It is now listed. ==History== ===Early history=== Extensive deposits of [[travertine]] from Maglekilde were mined and used as a building material before bricks became readily available. Several churches in the Rokilde area were built in travertine from the spring in the 11th and 12th centuries.{{cite web|url=http://www.kulturarv.dk/1001fortaellinger/da_DK/maglekilden-i-roskilde|title=Maglekilden I Roskilde|publisher=Kulturstyrelsen|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} This activity resulted in the formation of a pond which was used as a [[mill pond]]. The watermill at the site was called Maglekilde Watermill (''Maglekilde Mølle''). The water from the spring also powered five other watermills on its way to [[Roskilde Fjord]]: Vandhulsmølle, Sankt Mortens Mølle, Kapelsmøllen, Sankt Clara Mølle and Strandmøllen.{{cite web|url=http://www.roskildemuseum.dk/vores-viden/nyere-tid/fredede-huse-i-roskilde-og-lejre.aspx|title=Fredede huse i Roskilde og Lejre|publisher=Roskilde Museum|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} Maglekilde Watermill is first mentioned by name in 1258 but it most likely included in the [[prebendary|prebend]] of one of the [[canon (priest)|canon]]s at the [[cathedral chapter]] in 1253.{{cite web|url=http://www.roskildehistorie.dk/1200/enkeltaar/1250-99/1253.htm|title=1264|publisher=Roskildes Historie|accessdate=13 January 2015|language=Danish}} ===Maglekilde Paper and Textile Mill=== On 8 April 1731, Maglekilde Watermill was the first of the buildings which were destroyed in the series of devastating fires that hit Roskilde in 1731.{{cite web|url=http://www.roskildehistorie.dk/1700/billeder/bystyre/ildebrande/brand1.htmhtml|title=Brandene I 1731|publisher=Roskildes Historie|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} A new paper mill was built on the site in 1737{{cite web|url=http://fam-schuwendt.dk/onewebmedia/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Papirmagerne%20og%20Mundus%20familien.pdf|title=Papirmagerne og Mundus familien.|publisher=fam-schuwendt.dk|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} and it was joined by a textile mill in 1761. In 1920, Maglekilde Paper Mill installed the fourth steam engine in the country.{{cite web|url=http://www.roskildehistorie.dk/1700/billeder/industri/Maglekilde/papirfabrik.htm|title=1731 Maglekilde Klæde- og Papirfabrik|publisher=Roskildes Historie|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} In spite of the introduction of new technology, Maglekilde Paper Mill was unable to compete with the larger paper mill Strandmøllen on [[Mølleåen]] and in 1838 the factory went bankrupt.{{cite web|url=http://www2.gribskovgymnasium.dk/fs/wwwDamp/4_Drewsen_1821.html|title=Drewsen 1821|publisher=gribskovgymnasium.dk|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} ===Maglekilde Spa and later history=== [[Image:Maglekilde Vandkuranstalt.jpg|thumb|200px|Maglekilde Spa in 1847]] The disused industrial complex was acquired by a group of citizens from Roskilde in 1846. They demolished the buildings, filled the mill pond and built Maglekilde Spa (''Maglekilde Vandkuranstalt'') on the site. Never gaining popularity, it attracted only few guests and closed after just two years in 1851. The water was directed through a closed ditch to a grotto on Maglekildevej where it sprang from the mouth of a [[Neptune]] figure. A small wellhouse was built over the spring in 1927. The spa building was used for other purposes prior to its demolition in 1972. ==Today== The wellhouse is a small timber structure with a red tile roof. It is today located on a parking lot. The wellhouse was listed in 1979.{{cite web|url=https://www.kulturarv.dk/fbb/sagvis.pub?sag=7396692|title=Sag:Maglekilde|publisher=Kulturstyrelsen|accessdate=11 January 2015|language=Danish}} ==Further reading== * Af Haugsted, Ida: ''Maglekilde Vandkuranstalt : surmælk, omviklinger og brusebade'' (1994) ==See also== * [[Listed buildings in Roskilde Municipality]] ==References== {{reflist}} ==External links== {{Commons}} * [http://fam-schuwendt.dk/onewebmedia/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Papirmagerne%20og%20Mundus%20familien.pdf Papirmagerne og Mundus familien] {{Roskilde}} {{coord|55.64269|12.07708|type:landmark_region:DK|format=dms|display=title}} [[Category:Listed buildings and structures in Roskilde Municipality]] [[Category:Springs of Denmark]]", "The Coolin'''The Coolin''', or The Coolun, is an Irish air often characterised as one of the most beautiful in the [[Irish traditional music|traditional repertoire]]. In Irish, its name has been given as ''An Chúileann'' or ''An Chúilfhionn'' ("the fair haired girl" or "the fair lady") depending on the text used. The tune is also known as "The Lady of the Desert". ==History== The air, and the texts fitted to it, have a long and very complex history. Its exact provenance is unknown, but it has been variously asserted by different authors as dating from the 13th century, from the time of [[Henry VIII]], or from the 17th century, though the latter is the most credible.Donnellan, L. "Traditional Irish and Highland Airs", in Quinn (ed.), ''Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society'', vol 3, no. 1 (1912), 11-12 There are at least two main Irish language texts and a number of later English translations, or interpretations of both; there are also English words (such as those by [[Thomas Moore|Moore]]) which are not a translation of either Irish version. ===The air=== The air itself is sometimes claimed to have been composed by [[Turlough O'Carolan|Carolan]], though John Glen (1900) said that the "ancient Irish melody" was in fact usually known as "Molly St George" at the beginning of the 18th century.Glen, J. ''Early Scottish melodies: including examples from mss. and early printed works'', AMS, 1900, p.218 The latter-named tune has been often been associated with the great 17th-century harper [[Thomas Connellan]]. Connellan was also cited alongside Carolan as a possible composer of The Coolin, but as Glen noted, many supposed "that the tune is older than either of them". The version of The Coolin printed by [[Edward Bunting]] in ''The Ancient Music of Ireland '' (1840) was taken from the playing of [[Donnchadh Ó Hámsaigh]] (Dennis Hempson), who himself claimed to have learned it from the playing of [[Cornelius Lyons]] early in the previous century. Though Bunting's setting claims to present the tune with variations, it in fact appears to print only Lyons' once-fashionable baroque variations while omitting the main tune.''Journal of the Irish folk Song Society'', v1-2, Wm. Dawson, 1967, p.32 [[Patrick Weston Joyce]], who said that Bunting's version was "wanting in simplicity", printed a version of the tune collected from the playing of a fiddler, Hugh O'Beirne, that he said was very similar to that he recalled being sung in his youth in 1830s [[County Limerick]].Joyce, ''Old Irish Folk Music and Songs'', 1909, p.299 Other versions appeared in several late 18th century collections, as well as in the 1795 opera ''The Wicklow Mountains'', written by [[John O'Keeffe (Irish writer)|John O'Keeffe]] with music by [[William Shield]]. ===Claimed 13th or 16th century origins=== These suggestions originated with [[Joseph Cooper Walker]], who said in his ''Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards'' (1786) that the air's title in fact referred to what he called the "coulins", or long locks of hair, worn by Irish men and which were prohibited by a statute of [[Henry VIII]], although he noted that no actual words to the air on this subject had survived.Walker, J. C. ''Historical Memoirs of the Irish Bards'', Payne, 1786, p.134 Despite the lack of a text, Walker's assertion was repeated by, amongst others, [[Laurence F. Renehan|Renehan]] and [[W. H. Grattan Flood]]: Flood however proposed (based on a suggestion by Lynch in a letter to the ''Dublin Penny Journal'') the air must refer to an earlier statute of the 13th century. The story inspired a 19th-century patriotic poem called ''The Coulin Forbidden'', written by W. B. McBurney under the pseudonym "Carroll Malone". [[File:Eugene OCurry-Social England 1904-p889-with-header.jpg|thumbnail|right|The distinguished philologist [[Eugene O'Curry]] believed that the air known as The Coolin was first given that name in the early 18th century by a Fr. Oliver O'Hanley.]] The philologist [[Eugene O'Curry]] asserted, however, that the title "The Coolin" was only applied to the air in the 18th century after it was used by a priest, Fr. Oliver O'Hanley, to set a poem he wrote in praise of a famous beauty of [[County Limerick]].O'Curry, E. Note XXVI to Griffin, G. ''The Invasion'', 1895, p.586 In this case, O'Curry commented, the word "Coolin" is used in its sense "fair-haired one", to refer to a girl: he disagrees with Walker, stating "no such word was ever, or ever could have been, applied to the ''glibbs'', or long tufts of back hair, prohibited by old English statute". The Rev. L. Donnellan, in a survey of the various texts and tunes of The Coolin, published in the 1912 ''Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society'', was equally dismissive: he states that Walker's "credulous" story of it referring to an English statute was "fabricated by his friend [William] Beauford".Donnellan, L. "Traditional Irish and Highland Airs", in Quinn (ed.), ''Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society'', vol 3, no. 1 (1912), 11-12 He also notes that what he called Walker's "foolish speculation" was encouraged by his insertion of the phrase "glibbs and coulins" into the 16th century statute, which he notes only refers to proscribed "glibbs". Donnellan's conclusion was that the original composition was a 17th-century one attributed to O Duagain (see below). ===Text attributed to O Duagain=== The oldest and best-known Irish text definitely associated with the tune is a love-poem addressed to a fair-haired girl (''chúilfhionn''); this is attributed to a poet called Muiris O Duagain or Maurice O'Dugan of [[Benburb]] and said to have been written in around 1641.Hardiman, James. ''Irish minstrelsy, or Bardic remains of Ireland'', v.1, 1831, p.349 English translations of this text have been written by Sir [[Samuel Ferguson]] (beginning "O have you seen the Coolun") and [[Thomas Furlong (poet)|Thomas Furlong]], amongst others. The latter was printed by [[James Hardiman]], along with O Duagain's original text, in his collection ''Irish Minstrelsy'' (1831). A version of O Duagain of Benburb's poem was also printed, with translations, in [[Douglas Hyde]]'s ''Love Songs of Connacht'' (1893), with the first line ''A's éirigh do shuidhe a bhuachaill a's gleus dam mo ghearrán'' ("And rise up lad, and get ready for me my nag"). Hyde omits two stanzas already printed by Hardiman, and describes this as a version collected in [[Connacht]].Hyde, ''Love Songs of Connacht'', 1893, pp.69-70 Donnellan, after dismissing Walker, Grattan Flood and O'Curry's other suggestions, states that the probability "is that O'Dugan of Benburb did compose a poem with this air perhaps substantially the same as the different versions given by Hardiman, Vol. I., p. 251 ; O'Daly, p. 155 ; and Dr. Hyde, pp. 70-73 in the ''Love Songs of Connacht''". ===Text attributed to O'Hanley=== Writing in the early 1800s, O'Curry said that the title "The Coolin" was first applied to the air in the 18th century after it was used by a poet, Father Oliver O'Hanley (fl. 1700-1750), to set an Irish-language poem he had written in praise of Nelly O'Grady, a celebrated beauty of [[County Limerick]]. This text, beginning ''Ceó meala lá seaca, ar choilltibh dubha baraighe'' ("A honey mist on a day of frost, in a dark oak wood"), and which is addressed to ''Neilidh'' ("Nelly") was printed by Hyde, who said it was written in a manuscript originating in [[County Clare]], though the manuscript was partly damaged and he could not read two stanzas. ===Other texts=== Hyde noted the existence of what he called a Munster version of the poem, given in O'Daly's ''The poets and poetry of Munster'' (1850). This shares some material with that attributed to O Duagain, but is only three stanzas long and includes a reference to a member of the Power family.O'Daly, J. ''The Poets and Poetry of Munster: A Selection of Irish Songs by the Poets of the Last Century'', 1850, pp.124-125 Another well-known text was written for the air in English by the poet [[Thomas Moore]], usually known by its first line ''Though the last glimpse of Erin''. It is not a translation of any of the earlier Irish versions. Donnellan noted that the version of the air used by Moore was substantially "correct and unaltered", particularly in comparison to Bunting's, when compared with early 19th and late 18th century copies of the tune, though it still showed some evidence of having been adapted by an "instrumentalist".Donnellan, 12, 13 ==Text== The following is the early 19th century translation of O Duagain's text by Ferguson: :O have you seen the Coolun, :Walking down the cuckoo's street, :With the dew of the meadow shining :On her milk-white twinkling feet! :My love she is, and my ''coleen oge'', :And she dwells in Bal'nagar; :And she bears the palm of beauty bright, :From the fairest that in Erin are. :In Bal'nagar is the Coolun :Like the berry on the bough her cheek; :Bright beauty dwells for ever :On her fair neck and ringlets sleek; :Oh, sweeter is her mouth's soft music :Than the lark or thrush at dawn, :Or the blackbird in the greenwood singing :Farewell to the setting sun. :Rise up, my boy! make ready :My horse, for I forth would ride, :To follow the modest damsel, :Where she walks on the green hillside; :Where since our youth were we plighted, :In faith, troth, and wedlock true - :She is sweeter to me nine times over, :Than organ or cuckoo! :For, ever since my childhood :I loved the fair and darling child; :But our people came between us, :And with lucre our pure love defiled; :Ah, my woe it is, and my bitter pain, :And I weep it night and day, :That the ''coleen bawn'' of my early love, :Is torn from my heart away. :Sweetheart and faithful treasure, :Be constant still and true; :Nor for want of herds and houses :Leave one who would ne'er leave you, :I'll pledge you the blessed Bible, :Without and eke within, :That the faithful God will provide for us, :Without thanks to kith or kin. :Oh, love, do you remember :When we lay all night alone, :Beneath the ash in the winter storm :When the oak wood round did groan? :No shelter then from the blast had we, :The bitter blast or sleet, :But your gown to wrap about our heads, :And my coat around our feet.''The Book of Irish Ballads: Edited by Denis Florence M'Carthy'', James Duffy, 1846, p.188 ==Historic performances== The Coolin was a popular part of the Irish harp repertoire of the 18th century. [[Charles Fanning (harper)|Charles Fanning]] won first prize at the [[Belfast Harp Festival]] of 1792 with a performance of The Coolin, repeating his success at the earlier [[Granard]] harp festivals with the same tune.[http://billhaneman.ie/AIH/MemoirsOfArthurONeill.html The Memoirs of Arthur O'Neill], Chapter XVI Bunting appears to have disapproved of Fanning's performance at Belfast, noting that he "was not the best performer, but he succeeded in getting the first prize by playing 'The Coolin' with modern variations, a piece of music at the time much in request by young practitioners on the piano-forte".Bunting, quoted in O'Neill, F. ''Irish Minstrels and Musicians'', 1913, p.84 After the decline of Irish harping in the early 19th century, the air became equally popular as an instrumental piece with fiddle players and [[uilleann pipes|pipers]]. Recordings of The Coolin exist by [[Leo Rowsome]], [[Johnny Doran]] and [[Willie Clancy (musician)|Willie Clancy]], amongst others. ==Samuel Barber setting== The composer [[Samuel Barber]] published a setting of The Coolin in 1942 for unaccompanied chorus, based on a text originally published by [[James Stephens (author)|James Stephens]] in the collection ''Reincarnations''.Heyman, B. ''Samuel Barber'', OUP, 1992, p.182 Stephens said that his poem, "The Coolun", was based on another by "[[Antoine Ó Raifteiri|Raftery]]",Stephens, ''Reincarnations'', Macmillan, 1918 but seems to bear some similarity to parts of the O'Hanley text ''Ceó meala lá seaca, ar choilltibh dubha baraighe''. ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:Irish songs]] [[Category:Year of song unknown]] {{DEFAULTSORT:Coolin}}", "Category:Chicago Board of Trade litigation[[Category:Chicago Board of Trade|Litigation]] [[Category:United States cases by party]]", "Punjab Unionist Party#REDIRECT [[Unionist Party (Punjab)]]", "Wikipedia:WikiProject Spam/Local/gordonnapier.com {{User:COIBot/Summary/SpecificReports}} {{User:COIBot/linksaverdatabases|||||}} {{NOINDEX}}[[Category:Local COIBot Reports|gordonnapier.com]] == Links == * {{LinkSummary|gordonnapier.com}} :* gordonnapier.com resolves to [//] :*: {{LinkSummary|}} :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Blacklist|blacklist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Domainredlist|domainredlist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Monitorlist|Monitorlist]]. :* None of the mentioned users is on the [[en:User:COIBot#Blacklist|blacklist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Whitelist|whitelist]]. :* Link is not on the [[en:User:COIBot#Monitor list|monitor list]]. == Users == * {{UserSummary|Melisamahtab}} == Selected additions == {{User:COIBot/Additionlist_top}} {{User:COIBot/EditSummary|id=43870894|lang=en|wikidomain=w|namespace=|pagename=The Matrix|username=Melisamahtab|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|sortdomain=com.gordonnapier.|domain=gordonnapier.com|origdiff=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?diff=642518081&oldid=641992671|resolved=X|isIP=0|date=2015-01-14|time=22:24:57|wiki=en.wikipedia.org|revid=642518081|oldid=641992671|whitelisted=0|blacklisteduser=0|whitereason=|blackreason=|usercount=11|top=0|deleted=0|there=1|checked=1|coiflag=0|otherlinks={{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}}} {{User:COIBot/EditSummary|id=43875904|lang=en|wikidomain=w|namespace=|pagename=The Matrix|username=Melisamahtab|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|sortdomain=com.gordonnapier.|domain=gordonnapier.com|origdiff=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?diff=642525526&oldid=642524066|resolved=X|isIP=0|date=2015-01-14|time=23:33:11|wiki=en.wikipedia.org|revid=642525526|oldid=642524066|whitelisted=0|blacklisteduser=0|whitereason=|blackreason=|usercount=11|top=0|deleted=0|there=1|checked=1|coiflag=0|otherlinks={{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}{{User:COIBot/OtherLinks|link=gordonnapier.com/the-matrix-the-heros-journey-stages/|domain=gordonnapier.com|U=11|L=11|UL=11|WUL=0}}}} {{User:COIBot/Additionlist_bottom}} * Displayed 2 additions out of 2 total. For more info see [[Wikipedia:WikiProject_Spam/LinkReports/gordonnapier.com]] == Entry == [[MediaWiki talk:Spam-blacklist/log|Log]] entry for the [[MediaWiki:Spam-blacklist]]: \bgordonnapier\.com\b        # ADMINNAME # see [[[[Wikipedia:WikiProject_Spam/Local/gordonnapier.com]]]] == Discussion == {{LinkStatusLocal|en.wikipedia.org|open}} See [[Wikipedia:WikiProject_Spam/LinkReports/gordonnapier.com|COIBot report]] for more details. New data reported. --[[User:COIBot|COIBot]] ([[User talk:COIBot|talk]]) 22:53, 14 January 2015 (UTC) New data reported. --[[User:COIBot|COIBot]] ([[User talk:COIBot|talk]]) 00:13, 15 January 2015 (UTC)", "Metasia gnorisma{{italic title}} {{Taxobox | image = | image_caption = | regnum = [[Animal]]ia | phylum = [[Arthropod]]a | classis = [[Insect]]a | ordo = [[Lepidoptera]] | familia = [[Crambidae]] | genus = ''[[Metasia]]'' | species = '''''M. gnorisma''''' | binomial = ''Metasia gnorisma'' | binomial_authority = J. F. G. Clarke, 1971 | synonyms = }} '''''Metasia gnorisma''''' is a [[moth]] in the [[Crambidae]] family. It was described by J. F. G. Clarke in 1971. It is found in [[French Polynesia]], where it has been recorded from [[Rapa Iti]].{{cite web|url=http://globiz.pyraloidea.org/Pages/Reports/TaxonReport.aspx |title=global Pyraloidea database |publisher=Globiz.pyraloidea.org |date= |accessdate=2014-07-15}} ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:Moths described in 1971]] [[Category:Spilomelinae]] {{Spilomelinae-stub}}", "Green tv india {{Infobox TV channel | name =Green Tv India | logofile = [[File:Photogreen.jpg|220px]] | logocaption = '''ग्रीन टीवी''' | branding = Green Tv | headquarters = [[Noida]], India | country = [[India]] | language = [[Hindi language|Hindi]] | picture format = [[4:3]] ([[576i]], [[SDTV]]) | broadcast area = India | network_type = Broadcasting and online | slogan = "Mitti Ki Awaaz" (English: 'Voice of soul') | broadcast area = India & Worldwide | network = [[Terrestrial television|Broadcast]] [[television]] and online | launch = October 21, 2014| founder = Green Agricultural Broadcasting Corporation Pvt.Ltd. | key_people = [[Junaid Memon]] (MD)| | web = {{url|http://www.greentvindia.com/}} }} '''Green TV India''' is a 24-hour [[Hindi]] [[agricultural]] [[television]] channel owned by [[Green Agricultural Broadcasting Corporation Pvt. Ltd.]] == External links == * {{Official website|http://www.greentvindia.com}} *[http://www.thehindu.com/features/metroplus/society/going-greenand-how/article6552282.ece Going Green and how !-The Hindu] * [http://www.indiantelevision.com/television/tv-channels/specialised-and-niche/green-tv-to-go-the-afp-way-soon-141105 GreenTv to go the AFP way,soon] *[http://www.cablequest.org/news/channel-launch/item/5774-agriculture-focused-channel-green-tv-to-launch-by-september-end.html] *[http://nextvindia.com/4-free-to-air-dtt/green-tv-launches-by-september-end/ Green TV launches by September end] *[http://www.cablequest.org/news/channel-launch/item/5774-agriculture-focused-channel-green-tv-to-launch-by-september-end.html Agriculture-focused channel Green TV to launch by September end] *[http://wwwksksatinfo.blogspot.in/2014/08/green-tv-indias-first-agriculture.html] *[http://topic.ibnlive.in.com/indra-kumar/videos/dhaba-india-every-friday-4-pm-on-green-tv-FYYj8dwjvk0-123533.html dhaba India ] *[http://www.ruralmarketing.in/industry/agriculture/broadcasting-for-farmers Broadcasting for farmers] *[http://www.bollywoodhelpline.com/news-gossips/media-buzz/nomad-films-decides-to-go-green-soon-to-launch-an-agriculture-channel-green-tv/14405 Nomad Films decides to go Green, Soon to launch an agriculture channel, Green TV] {{Uncategorized|date=January 2015}}", "File:Lloyd's War Medal for Bravery at Sea.jpeg==Summary== {{Information |Description = Image of the obverse of a Lloyd's War Medal for Bravery at Sea |Source = Digital camera
'''Previously published:''' Unpublished |Date = ca 2000 |Author = [[User:Adeligneumann|Adeligneumann]] }} ==Licensing== {{self|GFDL|cc-by-sa-3.0|migration=redundant}}
", "Central West, New Jersey#REDIRECT [[Central West, Trenton, New Jersey]]", "Econometrist#REDIRECT [[Econometrics]]", "Category:Headmasters of Bloxham School[[Head teacher|Headmasters]] of [[Bloxham School]] in [[Oxfordshire]], [[England]].", "Parasomatidia kaszabi{{italic title}} {{Taxobox | regnum = [[Animal]]ia | phylum = [[Arthropod]]a | classis = [[Insect]]a | ordo = [[Beetle|Coleoptera]] | subordo = [[Polyphaga]] | familia = [[Cerambycidae]] | genus = '''''[[Parasomatidia]]''''' | species = '''''P. kaszabi''''' | binomial = ''Parasomatidia kaszabi'' | binomial_authority = Breuning, 1978 | synonyms = }} '''''Parasomatidia kaszabi''''' is a species of [[beetle]] in the family [[Cerambycidae]], and the only species in the genus '''''Parasomatidia'''''. It was described by Breuning in 1978.[http://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id521194/ Biolib.cz - ''Parasomatidia kaszabi'']. Retrieved on 8 September 2014. ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:Lamiinae]] [[Category:Beetles described in 1978]] {{Lamiinae-stub}}", "Category:WikiProject Beetles members{{Cat more|Wikipedia:WikiProject Beetles}} [[Category:Wikipedians by WikiProject|Beetles]] [[Category:WikiProject Beetles|Members]]", "Onion From the Boot of a Benz{{Infobox film | name = Onion From the Boot of a Benz | image = Onion From the Boot of a Benz poster.jpg | alt = | caption = | film name = | director = Guo Minger | producer = | writer = | screenplay = | story = | based on = | starring = | narrator = | music = | cinematography = | editing = | studio = Hulun Beier Jinma Media Creative industries (film) Ltd | distributor = Shanghai Shengxing Media Co.,Ltd | released = {{film date |2015|1|27|}} | runtime = 90 minutes | country = China | language = Mandarin | budget = | gross = {{CNY|160,000}} }} '''''Onion From the Boot of a Benz''''' ({{zh|奔驰的大葱}}) is a 2015 Chinese [[comedy film]] directed by Guo Minger. It was released on January 27, 2015.{{cite web |url= https://movie.douban.com/subject/26297576/|title= 奔驰的大葱 (2015)|accessdate= January 30, 2015|work= movie.douban.com|publisher= [[douban.com]]|language= Chinese}} ==Cast== *Zhou Dehua *Han Xuewei *Dong Lifan *Yu Fei *Lu Yang *Wang Hao *Biligtü *Wang Zhengquan *Tang Dagang *Wang Peilu ==Reception== By January 29, the film had earned {{CNY|160,000}} at the Chinese box office.{{cite web |url= http://www.cbooo.cn/m/618595|title= 奔驰的大葱(2015)|accessdate= January 30, 2015|work= www.cbooo.cn|language= Chinese}} ==References== {{reflist}} [[Category:2010s comedy films]] [[Category:Chinese comedy films]] [[Category:Chinese films]] {{2010s-comedy-film-stub}} {{China-film-stub}}", "Category:1960s Hindi-language films[[Category:Hindi-language films by decade]] [[Category:1960s films|Hindi]] [[Category:1960s in Indian cinema]]", "Wikipedia:Categories for discussion/Log/2015 February 9 === February 9 === ==== NEW NOMINATIONS ==== ", "Template:Sahaptin peoples{{Navbox |name = Sahaptin peoples |title = [[Sahaptin]] peoples |state = {{{state|collapsed}}} |listclass = hlist |group1 = Nations |list1 = * [[Cayuse people|Cayuse]] * [[Klickitat people|Klickitat]] * [[Molala]] * [[Palus people|Palus]] * [[Tenino people|Tenino]] * [[Umatilla people|Umatilla]] * [[Walla Walla people|Walla Walla]] * [[Yakama]] }} [[Category:Native American tribes in Idaho]] [[Category:Native American tribes in Oregon]] [[Category:Native American tribes in Washington (state)]]", "Camaldolese Church, Warsaw'''Camaldolese Church''', dating from the 17th-18th centuries and situated among the buildings of the hermitage in the Bielański Forest, is one of the most beautiful baroque churches in [[Warsaw]]. [[File:Church of Camaldoleses in Warsaw.JPG|thumb|Camaldolese Church, Warsaw]] '''History''' The king of Poland [[Władysław IV Vasa]] (Polish: Władysław IV Waza) founded the first church in Bielański Forest as a vote of gratitude for royal election the crown and wining in the Smolensk campaign. The church had to be situated in a remote area according to the [[Camaldolese]]s tradition and it was built on the area of former village Pólko (now Bielany). In 1669-1710 and 1733-1755 the church was rebuilt, the founders of the project were Polish kings [[John II Casimir Vasa|John II Casimir]] (Polish: Jan II Kazimierz Waza) and [[Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki|Michael I]] (Polish: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki). During the 19th century Poland was under partitions. After the fall of the [[January Uprising]] in 1864, Tsarist occupation authorities liquidated all Camaldoles monasteries with the exception of the Warsaw. In the next years Russian authorities took over some of the buildings. The Russian introduced a ban on the admission of new members. After that the church and hermitages were taken over by the Russian Red Cross. In 1905 there was created a parish and the church was renovated. After Russians withdrawal from Warsaw in 1914 there was form an orphanage run by Sisters. In 1916 seminar was launched and in 1918 there was created junior high school. For the purposes it was erected a new building placed in the former foresterium. Nowadays the church and the hermitage huts are preserved in original state. After the destructions of the 2nd World War and burning down of the gymnasium building the former monastery buildings were redesigned by the ATK (Catholic Theology Academy), now UKSW (Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University), and in the site of the hostelry and the remnants of the gymnasium building there is a modern seminary building being erected by the Warsaw Archdiocese. '''Architecture'''
[[File:Plan of the Church of Camaldoleses in Warsaw.jpg|thumb|Plan of the Camaldolese Church, Warsaw]] Standing in front of the facade of the church we are exactly on the axis of the monastic complex. It is point out by the wooden cross standing at today Dewajtis street. From the setting of that cross in 1693 began to pave the grounds of the monastery. The monastery complex consists of a gate, church, 13 hermitages and foresterium. According to Mariusz Karpowicz the church was designed by Italian architect Isidoro Affaitati. '''''Facade''''' Facade was erected when the church with the main body had been already built. Designer of that late Baroque works could be a Roman architect [[Gaetano Chiaveri]]. The facade is triaxle - the central part is a little forward of and topped with a tympanum, enclosed in a pair of composite pilasters and columns. We can observe here two architectural styles late Baroque and early Classicism. The first of them we can see in the details and the second one in the central part and columns. In the side niches are set two wooden polychrome sculptures. The first shows [[Benedict of Nursia|Saint Benedict]] and the second one [[Romuald|Saint Romuald]]. '''''Interior''''' Interior decorations are in rococo style. the church has an octagonal plan cut by cross. Presbytery is a double span, closed semicircular. There is an octagonal nave, which cut transept by transverse axis. The transept is made by two symmetrical chapels. We can observe a great sailing vault. On the diagonal axes are four chapels lower than those which determine presbytery. Consistency adds fact that whole interior has part of Corinthian style for example columns. Between the chapels there are placed narrow passages. '''''Hermitages'''''
[[File:Gate to hermitages - Church of Camaldoleses in Warsaw.JPG|thumb|Hermitage Gate, Camaldolese Church, Warsaw]] Walking around the church, we can see 13 [[Hermitage (religious retreat)|hermitages]]. They are arranged in four parallel rows on either side of the central axis formed. Between houses connected by low walls fences are situated gardens. All hermitages have the same interior. In the center there is cross-vaulted hall, on the one side there is a cell and small utility room, on the other side we can see chapel and woodshed. '''Nowadays''' At present near the church there is junior high school, high school and UKSW (Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University). Now the church is also a kind of cultural center. The concerts and theatrical performances take place in the crypt, there is also a café. There are several attractions for children such as wooden carousel and a donkey. The church is attractive both for local society and tourists. '''Bibliography:''' * Maria Brykowska, Kościół Kamedułów na Bielanach, Warszawa: Wyd. PWN, 1982 * Ks. Michał Janocha, Kościół Bielański, Warszawa: Wyd. Press Rosikon, 2012 * Mariusz Karpowicz, Sztuka Polska XVIII wieku, Wyd. WAiF, 1985 * Jerzy Kasprzycki Korzenie miasta Warszawskie pożegnania tom V Żoliborz i Wola, Warszawa: Wyd. VEDA, 2004, s. 51 – 55 *Jarosław Zieliński i inni, Bielany przewodnik historyczno – sentymentalny, Warszawa – Bielany, 2003, s. 94 – 101. {{coord missing|Masovian Voivodeship}} [[Category:Churches in Poland]] [[Category:Buildings and structures in Warsaw]]
", "Wikipedia:WikiCup/History/2015/Submissions/Cjdee==Round 1== ===FA: 200 points=== ===GA: 30 points=== ===FL: 45 points=== ===FP: 20 points=== ===FPO: 45 points=== ===FT: 10 points per article in topic=== ===GT: 3 points per article in topic=== ===DYK: 5 or 10 points=== ===ITN: 10 points=== ===GAR & PR: 4 points=== ", "Erebus atavistis{{italic title}} {{Speciesbox | image = | image_width = | image_caption = | authority = (Hampson, 1913)[http://www.taxapad.com/local.php?taxonidLC=85984962 taxapad.com] | synonyms = *''Nyctipao atavistis'' Hampson, 1913 }} '''''Erebus atavistis''''' is a [[moth]] of the [[Erebidae]] family. It is found in the [[Republic of Congo]], [[Gabon]], [[South Africa]], [[Tanzania]], [[Uganda]] and [[Zimbabwe]].[http://www.afromoths.net/species_by_code/EREBATAV Afro Moths] ==References== {{Reflist}} {{wikispecies}} {{commons}} [[Category:Moths described in 1913]] [[Category:Erebus]] {{Erebinae-stub}}", "2015 Chonburi F.C. season{{Unreferenced|date=February 2015}} {{EngvarB|date=February 2015}} {{Use dmy dates|date=February 2015}} {{Infobox football club season | club = [[Chonburi F.C.|Chonburi]] | season = 2015 | manager = [[Jadet Meelarp]] | chairman = [[Wittaya Khunpluem]] | stadium = [[Chonburi Municipality Stadium|Chonburi Stadium]] | league = [[Thai Premier League]] | league result = ''[[2015 Thai Premier League|?]]'' | cup1 = [[Thai FA Cup]] | cup1 result = ''[[2015 Thai FA Cup|?]]'' | cup2 = [[Thai League Cup]] | cup2 result = ''[[2015 Thai League Cup|?]]'' | cup3 = [[AFC Champions League]] | cup3 result = ''[[2015 AFC Champions League|Preliminary round 2]]'' | league topscorer =
[[-]] (0) | season topscorer =
[[-]] (0) |pattern_la1 =_india1314h |pattern_b1=_lightbluehoophigh |pattern_ra1 =_india1314h |pattern_sh1 = |pattern_so1 = |leftarm1 = 0099CC |body1 = 0106be |rightarm1 = 0099CC |shorts1 = 0106be |socks1 = 0106be |pattern_la2 = |pattern_b2=_bluecollar_2 |pattern_ra2 = |pattern_sh2 = |pattern_so2 = |leftarm2 = |body2 = |rightarm2 = |shorts2 = |socks2 = | prevseason = [[2014 Chonburi F.C. season|2014]] | nextseason = [[2016 Chonburi F.C. season|2016]] }} The 2015 season is [[Chonburi F.C.|Chonburi]]'s 10th season in the [[Thai Premier League]] of Chonburi Football Club. ==Pre-season and friendlies== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !Date !Opponents !H / A !Result
F–A !Scorers |- bgcolor="#ffdddd" |12 December 2014 |[[Siam Navy F.C.|Navy]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1227-0-1 0–1] | |- bgcolor="#ddffdd" |17 December 2014 |[[Samut Prakan F.C.|Samut Prakan]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1235-2-1 2–1] |[[Chakrit Buathong|Chakrit]] 70', [[Therdsak Chaiman|Therdsak]] 73' ([[Penalty kick|pen.]]) |- bgcolor="#ffdddd" |24 December 2014 |[[Hoàng Anh Gia Lai F.C.|Hoàng Anh Gia Lai]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1260-0-3 0–3] | |- bgcolor="#ffffdd" |27 December 2014 |[[Port F.C.|Port]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1267-1-1 1–1] |[[Nurul Sriyankem|Nurul]] 11' |- bgcolor="#ddffdd" |10 January 2015 |[[Kedah FA|Kedah]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1303-1-0 1–0] |[[Patipan Unop|Patipan]] 48' |- bgcolor="#ddffdd" |14 January 2015 |[[Muangkan F.C.|Muangkan XI]] |A |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1319-4-1 4–1] |[[Juliano Mineiro Fernandes|Mineiro]] 13', [[Nurul Sriyankem|Nurul]] 18', [[Kirati Keawsombat|Kirati]] 40', [[Chakrit Buathong|Chakrit]] 69' |- bgcolor="#ffdddd" |17 January 2015 |[[Nakhon Pathom F.C.|Nakhon Pathom]] |A |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1330-3-5 3–5] |[[Anderson Dos Santos|Anderson]] 26', [[Leandro Assumpção|Assumpção]] 31', [[Chakrit Buathong|Chakrit]] 62' |- bgcolor="#ddffdd" |23 January 2015 |[[Army United F.C.|Army United]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1348-2-1 2–1] |[[Anderson Dos Santos|Anderson]] 18' ([[Penalty kick|pen.]]), [[Leandro Assumpção|Assumpção]] 38', |- bgcolor="#ffdddd" |25 January 2015 |[[Suphanburi F.C.|Suphanburi]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1354-2-1 2–3] |[[Chakrit Buathong|Chakrit]] 42', [[Juliano Mineiro Fernandes|Mineiro]] 46' |- bgcolor="#ffdddd" |30 January 2015 |[[Port F.C.|Port]] |A |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1376-1-3 1–3] |[[Juliano Mineiro Fernandes|Mineiro]] 74' |- bgcolor="#ffffdd" |4 February 2015 |[[PTT Rayong F.C.|PTT Rayong]] |H |[http://www.chonburifootballclub.com/football-news/item/1396-2-2-2 2–2] |[[Thiago Cunha|Cunha]] (2) 67', 74' |} ==Thai Premier Leaague== Toyota Thai Premier League {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !Date !Opponents !H / A !Result
F–A !Scorers !League
position |- bgcolor="#ffffff" |13 February 2015 |[[Saraburi F.C.|Gulf Saraburi]] |A |? | |? |} League Table ==AFC Champions League== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !Date !Opponents !H / A !Result
F–A !Scorers !Round |- bgcolor="#ffffff" |10 February 2015 |[[Kitchee SC|Kitchee]] |H |? | |Preliminary round 2 |} ==Thai FA Cup== Thaicom FA Cup {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !Date !Opponents !H / A !Result
F–A !Scorers !Round |} ==Thai League Cup== Toyota League Cup {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !Date !Opponents !H / A !Result
F–A !Scorers !Round |} ==Squad statistics== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" |- !rowspan="2" valign="bottom"|No. !rowspan="2" valign="bottom"|Pos. !rowspan="2" valign="bottom"|Name !colspan="2" width="85"|League !colspan="2" width="85"|FA Cup !colspan="2" width="85"|League Cup !colspan="2" width="85"|Kor Royal Cup !colspan="2" width="85"|Asia !colspan="2" width="85"|Total !colspan="2" width="85"|Discipline |- !Apps !Goals !Apps !Goals !Apps !Goals !Apps !Goals !Apps !Goals !Apps !Goals ![[File:Yellow card.svg|13px]] ![[File:Red card.svg|13px]] |- |align="left"|2||align="left"|DF||align="left"|{{flagicon|THA}} [[Noppanon Kachaplayuk]] |0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0 |- |align="left"|—||align="left"|—||align="left"|[[Own goal]]s |–||0||–||0||–||0||–||0||–||0||–||0||–||– |} ==Transfers== First Thai footballer's market is opening on November 6, 2014 to January 28, 2015 Second Thai footballer's market is opening on June 3, 2015 to June 30, 2015 ===In=== {| class="wikitable" |- !Date !Pos. !Name !From |- |5 November 2014 |MF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Warut Sap-so]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Port F.C.|Port]] |- |6 November 2014 |DF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Alongkorn Prathumwong]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Sisaket F.C.|Sisaket]] |- |18 November 2014 |MF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Phuritad Jarikanon]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Bangkok Glass F.C.|Bangkok Glass]] |- |21 November 2014 |FW |{{flagicon|AUS}} [[Brent McGrath]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Sisaket F.C.|Sisaket]] |- |14 December 2014 |DF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Visaroot Vaingan]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Port F.C.|Port]] |- |6 January 2015 |GK |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Watthanapong Tabutda]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Army United F.C.|Army United]] |- |9 January 2015 |DF |{{flagicon|KOR}} [[Cho Byung-kuk]] |{{flagicon|CHN}} [[Shanghai Greenland Shenhua F.C.|Shanghai Greenland Shenhua]] |- |11 January 2015 |FW |{{flagicon|BRA}} [[Leandro Assumpção]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chiangrai United F.C.|Chiangrai United]] |} ===Out=== {| class="wikitable" |- !Date !Pos. !Name !To |- |28 January 2015 |DF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Natthaphong Samana]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Suphanburi F.C.|Suphanburi]] |- |28 January 2015 |GK |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Panupong Pichittham]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Suphanburi F.C.|Suphanburi]] |} ===Loan in=== {| class="wikitable" |- !Date from !Date to !Pos. !Name !From |- |8 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |FW |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Kirati Keawsombat]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[PTT Rayong F.C.|PTT Rayong]] |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |GK |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Pitawat Chamnongchob]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chainat Hornbill F.C.|Chainat Hornbill]] |} ===Loan out=== {| class="wikitable" |- !Date from !Date to !Pos. !Name !To |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |GK |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chanin Sae-Eae]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chainat Hornbill F.C.|Chainat Hornbill]] |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |DF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Rachanon Kanyatong]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chainat Hornbill F.C.|Chainat Hornbill]] |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |DF |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Piyawit Janput]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Chainat Hornbill F.C.|Chainat Hornbill]] |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |FW |{{flagicon|AUS}} [[Brent McGrath]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Port F.C.|Port]] |- |28 January 2015 |31 December 2015 |MF |{{flagicon|JPN}} [[Kazuto Kushida]] |{{flagicon|THA}} [[Phan Thong F.C.|Phan Thong]] |} [[Category:2015 in Thai football]] [[Category:Chonburi F.C. seasons]]
", "Acara-Mirim River#REDIRECT [[Acará-Mirim River]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Companions of William I of England#REDIRECT [[Companions of William the Conqueror]]", "Athenaeus of Attaleia#REDIRECT [[Athenaeus of Attalia]]", "Avant-les-Marcilly#REDIRECT [[Avant-lès-Marcilly]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Bialki, Siedlce County#REDIRECT [[Białki, Siedlce County]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "36th New Brunswick general election{{gesb|NB|36}} The '''36th New Brunswick general election''' may refer to *the [[New Brunswick general election, 1925]], the 36th overall general election for New Brunswick, for the 36th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, but considered the 16th general election for the Canadian province of New Brunswick, or *the [[New Brunswick general election, 2006]], the 56th overall general election for New Brunswick, for the 56th New Brunswick Legislative Assembly, but considered the 36th general election for the Canadian province of New Brunswick. {{Disambig}} [[Category:New Brunswick general elections by number]]", "Hippopotamus Hunt (Rubens)#REDIRECT [[The Hippopotamus and Crocodile Hunt]]", "Bias in Singapore law#REDIRECT [[Doctrine of bias in Singapore law]]", "Magic fungi#redirect[[Lingzhi_mushroom#Chinese_names]]", "Category:Category-Class Warner Bros. Animation articles{{WPANIMATION assessment quality work group level|workgroup=Warner Bros. Animation|type=category pages|class=Category|type2=Pages}}", "Tophet Bastion'''Tophet Bastion''' ({{coord|60|42|S|45|17|W|display=inline,title}}) is a conspicuous [[ice cap|ice-capped]] rock wall, 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) long, with an apron of talus. It stands 1 nautical mile (1.9 km) east of [[Saunders Point]] on the south coast of [[Coronation Island]] in the [[South Orkney Islands]]. Roughly surveyed in 1933 by [[Discovery Investigations|DI]] personnel. The name, which is biblical, was applied by the [[Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey]] (FIDS) following their survey of 1948-49. {{usgs-gazetteer}} [[Category:Ice caps of Antarctica]] [[Category:Landforms of the South Orkney Islands]] {{SouthOrkneys-geo-stub}}", "Compagnie Financiere Edmond de Rothschild#REDIRECT [[Compagnie Financière Edmond de Rothschild]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Darioush Bayandor'''Darioush Bayandor''' is a former [[Iran]]ian diplomat and official who worked for the government of Shah [[Mohammad Reza Pahlavi]]. Following the [[Iranian Revolution]], he left Iran to work for the [[United Nations]] in the 1980s and 1990s before retiring to Switzerland where he writes and consults. Born in Iran, Bayandor served as a senior diplomat of the Iranian government in [[New York City]] and [[Tehran]] in the 1970s. He was the director of the regional bureau for the Americas in the Iran foreign ministry and served as foreign-affairs adviser to two prime ministers of [[Imperial State of Iran]]. From 1975 he served on Iran's permanent mission to the [[United Nations]] (UN).{{cite book|title=Delegations to the General Assembly|volume=30|year=1975|publisher=United Nations|page=140}}{{cite book|title=Permanent missions to the United Nations|volume=238–239|year=1976|publisher=United Nations|pages=86–87}} In 1980, Bayandor joined the UN and led several regional offices in Asia, Europe and Africa. In the 1990s he was the regional coordinator for the [[United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees]]{{cite web|url=http://burmalibrary.org/reg.burma/archives/199504/msg00155.html|title=AUSTCARE Report on Burma Refugees|date=June 1992|publisher=Burma.net|accessdate=28 November 2010}}{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0010/001029/102925e.pdf|title=Decisions Adopted by the Executive Board at its 149th session|date=28 May 1996|publisher=UNESCO|accessdate=28 November 2010}}{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000986/098655E.pdf|title=Decisions Adopted by the Executive Board at its 145th session|date=29 November 1994|publisher=UNESCO|accessdate=28 November 2010}}{{cite web|url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0009/000958/095807e.pdf|title=Decisions Adopted by the Executive Board at its 142nd session|date=10 December 1993|publisher=UNESCO|accessdate=28 November 2010}} in refugee-heavy areas such as [[Bangladesh]] and the [[Democratic Republic of Congo]], and he served in the UN's [[Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs]].{{cite web|url=http://idh.cidi.org:8080/humanitarian/irin/ceafrica/99a/0024.html|title=IRIN-CEA Weekly Round-up 25|date=26 June 1999|work=Integrated Regional Information Network for Central and Eastern Africa|publisher=[[Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs]]|accessdate=28 November 2010}} In 2006, Bayandor wrote "Hafez: A Face-Off With Virtue" about the famous 14th century Iranian lyric poet, [[Hafez]].{{cite journal|last=Bayandor|first=Darioush|date=Fall 2006|title=Hafez: A Face-Off With Virtue|journal=Journal of Middle Eastern and North African Intellectual and Cultural Studies|publisher=[[Binghamton University]]|location=[[Binghamton, New York]]|volume=4|issue=2}} His book ''Iran and The CIA: The Fall of Mosaddeq Revisited'', was published in 2010.[http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/articles/2010-JulyAugust/full-Hakakian-JA-2010.html Spook Story: What Really Happened to Mossadeq?] Roya Hakakian, World Affairs, July August 2010{{cite journal |url=http://www.economist.com/node/16103846 |title=Iran in the 20th century. Fall guy, How a prime minister was brought down |date=13 May 2010 |journal=The Economist}} The book has received mixed reviews, with the Economist and Washington Times describing it as "revisionist".[http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2010/aug/16/how-the-shah-came-to-power/ Book Review: How the shah came to power], By Joseph C. Goulden - The Washington Times, August 16, 2010 [[Homa Katouzian]], a historian and political scientist, dismissed the book as "political". http://www.radiofarda.com/content/f4_Homayoun_Katouzian_coup_28_mordad/2131844.html [[Washington Times]] criticized the book stating that "a careful reading of Mr. Bayandor's book, along with the CIA history and Mr. Roosevelt's memoir, shows that there is a very thin element of truth in his revisionist theory". However, ''[[The Economist]]'' and [[World Affairs]] were more complimentary, the former noting that "Bayandor's scepticism is a useful antidote to Roosevelt's self-aggrandising, which some later writers have mimicked uncritically". ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== *[http://darioush-bayandor.blogspot.com/ iran-etude], Bayandor's blog in English, French and Persian languages *[http://iran-etudes.blogspot.com/ Iran-Etudes], Bayandor's French language blog {{Authority control|VIAF=101407516}} {{Persondata |name= Bayandor, Darioush |alternative names= |SHORT DESCRIPTION = Iranian writer and diplomat |date of birth= |place of birth= |date of death= |place of death= }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Bayandor, Darioush}} [[Category:Living people]] [[Category:Iranian diplomats]] [[Category:Iranian writers]]", "Duško Kostić[[File:Duskoprize.jpg|thumb|250px|right|Dusko Kostic receives the Student Peace Prize of 2011, fotogjengen.samfundet.no]] '''Duško Kostić''' is founder and president of the "Association of Roma Friendship", Luna. He comes from [[Beli Manastir]] in eastern [[Croatia]], and studies at the [[University of Osijek]]. On the 25th of November 2010 it was announced that Duško Kostić will receive the [[Student Peace Prize]] for 2011,[http://www.esib.org/index.php/News/press-releases/808-roma-becomes-first-european-to-win-student-peace-prize] European Students' Union: Roma becomes first European to win Student Peace Prize for his work concerning the [[Romani people|Roma people]]’s rights. Through education and educational work he has sought to build bridges and understanding between Croatia's different ethnic groups. The Student Peace Prize is awarded on behalf of all students in [[Norway]]. ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== * [http://www.oaza-bm.hr//index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=970 ''Mirovna grupa Oaza: Dušku Kostiću u čast''] {{hr icon}} {{Croatia-bio-stub}} {{Persondata | NAME = Kostić, Duško | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = Croatian human rights activist | DATE OF BIRTH = | PLACE OF BIRTH = | DATE OF DEATH = | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Kostic, Dusko}} [[Category:Croatian human rights activists]] [[Category:Living people]]", "Dlugokaty, Zyrardow County#REDIRECT [[Długokąty, Żyrardów County]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Michael Rodrick'''Michael J. Rodrick''' (born February 22, 1970 in [[Jersey City, New Jersey]]) is an American film and television actor. Rodrick, a [[Jersey City, New Jersey]] native, won a scholarship to [[The Catholic University of America]]'s Drama School. After graduating he went on to originate the role of Cameron Sinclair on ''[[Another World (TV series)|Another World]]''. He worked with director [[Tim McCann (director)|Tim McCann]], starring in ''[[Desolation Angels (1995 film)|Desolation Angels]]'' and ''[[Nowhere Man (2005 film)|Nowhere Man]]'', garnering excellent critical reviews. He has appeared in guest roles on numerous television programs, including ''[[CSI: Miami]]'', ''[[Bones (TV series)|Bones]]'', ''[[Without a Trace]]'', and ''[[Cold Case (TV series)|Cold Case]]''. ==External links== *{{Official website|http://www.michaelrodrick.com}} *{{IMDb name}} {{Persondata | NAME = Rodrick, Michael | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = American actor | DATE OF BIRTH = February 22, 1970 | PLACE OF BIRTH = | DATE OF DEATH = | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Rodrick, Michael}} [[Category:1970 births]] [[Category:Male actors from New Jersey]] [[Category:American male film actors]] [[Category:American male soap opera actors]] [[Category:American male television actors]] [[Category:Living people]] [[Category:People from Jersey City, New Jersey]] [[Category:The Catholic University of America alumni]] {{US-tv-actor-1970s-stub}}", "George William, Count Palatine of Zweibrucken-Birkenfeld#REDIRECT [[George William, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Godo gaisha#REDIRECT [[Gōdō gaisha]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Hoeicho Station#REDIRECT [[Hōeichō Station]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Hornoya (Svalbard)#REDIRECT [[Hornøya (Svalbard)]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Hucisko, Gmina Staporkow#REDIRECT [[Hucisko, Gmina Stąporków]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Simon Lambert (speedway rider){{Infobox Speedway rider | image = SimonLambert.jpg | name = Simon Lambert | nationality = {{player||ENG|[[English people|English]]}} | birth_date = {{birth date and age|1989|2|21|df=y}} | birth_place = [[Boston, Lincolnshire]], [[England]] | nickname = Rambo Lambo,
Rambo | website = {{URL|http://www.simonlambertracing.co.uk/}} | britishleague = [[Leicester Lions]]/
[[Peterborough Panthers]] | swedishleague = | years = 2004-2008
2008, 2010
2011, 2012
2012, 2015
2015 | career = [[Boston Barracudas]]
[[Kings Lynn Stars]]
[[Scunthorpe Scorpions|Scunthorpe Scorpions]]
[[Scunthorpe Saints]]
[[Sheffield Tigers]]
[[Stoke Potters]]
[[Leicester Lions]]
[[Rye House Rockets]]
[[Somerset Rebels]]
[[Workington Comets]]
[[Kent Kings]]
[[Peterborough Panthers]] | indivhonour = | indivyear = | teamhonour = [[Conference League|CL]] Pairs Champions
[[National League (speedway)|NL Pairs Champion]] | teamyear = 2007, 2008
2011 }} '''Simon James Lambert''' (born 21 February 1989) in [[Boston, Lincolnshire]], [[England]],{{cite news |title=2010 Rider Index/Riders - S |url=http://www.speedwaygb.co/riderindex10_l.html|publisher=[[British Speedway]] Official Website |date=2010-11-10 |accessdate=2010-11-10}} is a [[Motorcycle speedway|speedway]] rider in the [[United Kingdom]]. ==Biography== Lambert rode in the [[Conference League]] with [[Boston Barracudas]], twice winning the Conference League Pairs Championship. In 2009 and 2010 he rode for [[Scunthorpe Scorpions]] in the Premier League."[http://www.spaldingtoday.co.uk/sport/other-sport/speedway_simon_stays_at_scorpions_1_583554 SPEEDWAY: Simon stays at Scorpions]", ''Spalding Guardian'', 18 November 2009, retrieved 2011-12-04 In 2010 he won the Golden Hammer individual meeting at [[Monmore Green]], with a perfect fifteen-point score."[http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/motorsport/9043191.stm King's Lynn's Simon Lambert claims Golden Hammer glory]", [[BBC]], 29 September 2010, retrieved 2011-12-04 He signed on for the Sheffield Tigers for the 2011 season on a 3.47 starting average, which rose to 5.63 by the end of the season.{{cite news |title='Rambo' to ride again for Tigers |url=http://www.thestar.co.uk/speedway/39Rambo39-to-ride-again-for.6646076.jp|publisher=[[Sheffield Star]] |date=2010-12-01 |accessdate=2010-12-01}} He also rode in the [[National League (speedway)|National League]] in 2011 for [[Stoke Potters]], and with [[Tim Webster (speedway rider)|Tim Webster]] won the National League Pairs Championship in June 2011."[http://www.thisisstaffordshire.co.uk/Speedway-Potters-Lambert-fast-track-joining-Elite/story-12868114-detail/story.html Speedway: Potters put Lambert on fast track to joining the Elite]", ''Staffordshire Sentinel'', 2 July 2011, retrieved 2011-12-04 In 2012 he signed for [[Leicester Lions]], but lost his place half way through the season, returning to ride for Stoke Potters in the National League. In August he returned to the Premier League with [[Rye House Rockets]]. Lambert has been nicknamed 'Rambo' by supporters.Morse, Peter (2011) "[http://www.crewechronicle.co.uk/crewe-sport/other-sports/2011/02/02/speedway-rambo-is-gunning-for-glory-with-the-potters-96135-28096037/ Speedway: ‘Rambo’ is gunning for glory with the Potters]", ''Crewe Chronicle'', 2 February 2011, retrieved 2011-12-04 ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== *{{Official website|http://www.simonlambertracing.co.uk/}} {{Persondata | NAME = Lambert, Simon | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = British speedway rider | DATE OF BIRTH = 1989-02-21 | PLACE OF BIRTH = [[Boston, Lincolnshire]], [[England]] | DATE OF DEATH = | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Lambert, Simon}} [[Category:1989 births]] [[Category:Living people]] [[Category:People from Boston, Lincolnshire]] [[Category:Sheffield Tigers riders]] [[Category:King's Lynn Stars riders]] [[Category:Scunthorpe Scorpions riders]]
", "Category:German military leaders of World War II[[Category:Military leaders of World War II]] [[Category:German military leaders]] [[Category:German military personnel of World War II]]", "Glamis Stone'''Glamis Stone''' can refer to: * The [[Glamis Hunter's Hill Stone]] - a Class II Pictish standing stone near Glamis, Angus, Scotland, otherwise known as Glamis 1 * The [[Glamis Manse Stone]] - a Class II Pictish standing stone in Glamis, otherwise known as Glamis 2 {{disambiguation}}", "Labergement-les-Auxonne#REDIRECT [[Labergement-lès-Auxonne]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Lugny, Saone-et-Loire#REDIRECT [[Lugny, Saône-et-Loire]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Miguel Angel Fraga#REDIRECT [[Miguel Ángel Fraga]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Adaptive Marketing LLC#REDIRECT [[Vertrue]]", "Nowy Dwor, Golub-Dobrzyn County#REDIRECT [[Nowy Dwór, Golub-Dobrzyń County]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Pio Gullon e Iglesias#REDIRECT [[Pío Gullón e Iglesias]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Raguhn-Jessnitz#REDIRECT [[Raguhn-Jeßnitz]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Saint-Maurice-la-Clouere#REDIRECT [[Saint-Maurice-la-Clouère]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Malaika Sallard Johnson#REDIRECT [[Malaika (singer)]]", "Santa Maria Huatulco#REDIRECT [[Santa María Huatulco]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Category:Immediate Records albums{{Album label category}}", "Matthew Watson (footballer born 1992){{about|the Carlton player|the Essendon player|Matthew Watson (footballer born 1976)}} {{Infobox AFL biography | name = Matthew Watson | image = | alt = | caption = | fullname = Matthew Watson | nickname = | birth_date = {{Birth date and age|df=yes|1992|7|16}} | birth_place = | death_date = | death_place = | originalteam = Pascoe Vale (EDFL)
[[Calder Cannons]] ([[TAC Cup]]) | draftpick = #18, [[2010 AFL Draft|2010 National Draft]], {{AFL Car}} | heightweight = 195 cm / 99 kg | position = [[Australian rules football positions|Defender]] | currentclub = {{AFL Car}} | guernsey = 10 | years = 2011– | clubs = {{AFL Car}} | games(goals) = 19 (6) | sooyears = | sooteams = | soogames(goals) = | nationalyears = | nationalteams = | nationalgames(goals) = | coachyears = | coachclubs = | coachgames(wins) = | statsend = 2014 | pcupdate = | repstatsend = | coachstatsend = | careerhighlights = }} '''Matthew Watson''' (born 16 July 1992Carlton Football Club, [http://www.carltonfc.com.au/news/newsarticle/tabid/4311/newsid/105380/default.aspx Selection 18 - Matthew Watson], 18 November 2010, Retrieved 23 March 2011.) is an [[Australian rules football]]er in the [[Australian Football League]] (AFL). ==Background== Watson plays primarily as a tall defender. Originally from Victoria, Watson attended and played school football for [[Penleigh and Essendon Grammar School]] and [[Pascoe Vale, Victoria|Pascoe Vale]]. He played [[TAC Cup]] football for the [[Calder Cannons]]. He represented Vic Metro at the 2008 AFL National Under 16 ChampionshipsJolly, L., [http://hume-leader.whereilive.com.au/sport/story/calder-cannons-stars-shine/ Hume Leader], "Calder Cannons stars shine", 6 October 2008, Retrieved 25 March 2011. and 2010 [[AFL National Under 18 Championships]], where he was selected as a defender in the Under 18 All-Australian team. Watson was recruited by the [[Carlton Football Club]] with its first round selection in the [[2010 AFL Draft|2010 AFL National Draft]] (number 18 overall). He was given the number 10 guernsey. He made his AFL debut in [[2011 AFL season|Round 2, 2011]] against [[Gold Coast Football Club|Gold Coast]], in what was the first game played by the new Gold Coast franchise.Windley, M., [http://www.heraldsun.com.au/sport/afl/live-afl-teams-round-2/story-e6frf9jf-1226031342156 Herald Sun], "Saints play it safe with Koschitzke", 31 March 2011, Retrieved 31 March 2011. Watson played a total of three matches for Carlton in his debut season,AFL Tables, [http://afltables.com/afl/stats/2011.html#3 2011 Stats - Player Lists - Carlton], Retrieved 19 Sep 2011. and played mostly for its {{VFL-affiliate}}, the [[Northern Bullants]].{{cite web|url=http://www.sportingpulse.com/team_info.cgi?c=1-118-10464-150677-14516495&a=STATS|publisher=Sportingpulse|title=Statistics for Northern Bullants playing VFL seniors|accessdate=18 Sep 2011}} Watson quickly became known for his long, accurate left-footed kicks out of defence, and as a result, Carlton fans shout "woof!" whenever Watson kicks the ball. Watson is the fourth long-kicking left-footed Carlton player to receive this now-traditional treatment, after [[Val Perovic]] in the 1980s, [[Ang Christou]] in the 1990s and [[Chris Bryan]] in the 2000s.{{cite web|url=http://www.carltonfc.com.au/news/newsarticle/tabid/4311/newsid/118829/default.aspx|title=Bringing back the "WOOF!"|date=18 July 2011|accessdate=18 July 2011|publisher=Carlton Football Club}} Watson is the nephew of [[Essendon Football Club|Essendon]] premiership player [[Steven Alessio]]. ==References== {{Reflist}} == External links== *{{Carlplayer}} *{{AflRleague|ref=M/Matthew_Watson1.html}} {{Carlton player squad}} {{2010 AFL Draft}} {{Persondata | NAME = Watson, Matthew | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = Australian rules footballer | DATE OF BIRTH = 16 July 1992 | PLACE OF BIRTH = | DATE OF DEATH = | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Watson, Matthew}} [[Category:Australian rules footballers from Victoria (Australia)]] [[Category:1992 births]] [[Category:Living people]] [[Category:Carlton Football Club players]] [[Category:Calder Cannons players]]
", "Versalles, Aviles#REDIRECT [[Versalles, Avilés]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Zawadowka, Gmina Chelm#REDIRECT [[Zawadówka, Gmina Chełm]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "Template:Ethnic groups in Guyana{{Navbox |name = Ethnic groups in Guyana |title = [[File:Flag of Guyana.svg|20x20px|link=|alt=]] Ethnic groups in Guyana |state = {{{state|autocollapse}}} |listclass = hlist |image = |group1 = [[Indigenous peoples in Guyana|Indigenous]] |list1 = * [[Akawaio people|Ingarikó]] * [[Arawak people|Arawak]] ** [[Lokono]] * [[Kalina people|Carib]] * [[Macushi people|Macushi]] * [[Patamona people|Patamona]] * [[Pemon people|Pemon]] * [[Wai-Wai people|Wai-Wai]] * [[Wapishana people|Wapishana]] * [[Warao people|Warao]] |group3 = Non-Indigenous |list3 = * [[Afro-Guyanese|African]] * [[Brazilians in Guyana|Brazilian]] * [[Chinese Guyanese|Chinese]] * [[Indo-Guyanese|Indian]] * [[History of the Jews in Guyana|Jews]] * [[Portuguese Guyanese|Portuguese]] }} {{collapsible option}} [[Category:Guyana templates| ]] [[Category:Ethnic groups by country templates|Guyanese]] [[Category:South America ethnic group templates|Guyana]] ", "New Brighton Village Hall{{Infobox NRHP | name = New Brighton Village Hall | nrhp_type = | image = | caption = | location= 66 Lafayette Ave., [[Staten Island, New York]] | lat_degrees = 40 | lat_minutes = 38 | lat_seconds = 35 | lat_direction = N | long_degrees = 74 | long_minutes = 5 | long_seconds = 46 | long_direction = W | coord_display = inline,title | coord_parameters = region:US-NY_type:landmark | locmapin = New York City | built = 1868-1871 | architect = Whitford, James | architecture = French Second Empire | added = December 15, 1978 | area = less than one acre | governing_body = State | refnum = 78001904{{NRISref|2009a}} }} '''New Brighton Village Hall''' is a historic [[Seat of local government|village hall]] located at [[New Brighton, Staten Island|New Brighton]], [[Staten Island, New York]]. It was built between 1868 and 1871 in the [[Second Empire architecture|Second Empire]] style. It is a three story brick building with a [[mansard roof]] sheathed with gray [[slate]] shingles.{{cite web|url=http://www.oprhp.state.ny.us/hpimaging/hp_view.asp?GroupView=7733|title=National Register of Historic Places Registration: New Brighton Village Hall|year=1976|accessdate=2010-12-06 |author=Barnett Shepherd and Elizabeth Spencer-Ralph|publisher=[[New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation]]}} ''See also:'' {{cite web|url=http://www.oprhp.state.ny.us/hpimaging/hp_view.asp?GroupView=7746|title=Accompanying six photos}} It was added to the [[National Register of Historic Places]] in 1978. Due to neglect, it was torn down in February 2004. ==References== {{reflist}} {{National Register of Historic Places in New York}} [[Category:Government buildings on the National Register of Historic Places in New York City]] [[Category:Second Empire architecture in New York]] [[Category:Government buildings completed in 1871]] [[Category:Buildings and structures in Staten Island]] {{RichmondCountyNY-NRHP-stub}} {{StatenIsland-struct-stub}}", "File:Adolescents - OC Confidential cover.jpg==Summary== {{album cover fur |Article=OC Confidential |Use=Infobox |Source=http://www.amazon.com/Oc-Confidential-Adolescents/dp/B0009UC7UC/ref=ntt_mus_ep_dpi_9 |Name= ''[[OC Confidential]]'' |Artist= [[Adolescents (band)|Adolescents]] |Label= Finger Records |Graphic Artist= |Item= |Type= |Website= |Owner= |Commentary= |Description= |Portion= |Low_resolution= |Purpose= |Replaceability= |other_information= }} ==Licensing== {{Non-free album cover}} [[Category:Adolescents (band) album covers|OC Confidential]]", "Template:Membrane transport protein disorders#REDIRECT [[Template:Solute carrier disorders]]", "Template:Taxonomy/Pontoporiidae{{Don't edit this line {{{machine code|}}}|{{{1}}} |rank=familia |link=La Plata dolphin|Pontoporiidae |parent=Inioidea |extinct= |refs= }}", "Hagurumon#REDIRECT [[List_of_Digimon_Data_Squad_characters]]", "Suigetu Hôzuki#REDIRECT [[List of Naruto characters#Antagonists]]", "District 11 (Zürich)#REDIRECT [[District 11 (Zurich)]]", "List of elections in 1304The following elections occurred in the year 1304. * [[Papal conclave, 1304–1305]] ==See also== * [[:Category:1304 elections]] [[Category:Lists of elections by year]]", "List of Military Brats#REDIRECT [[List of military brats]] {{R from other capitalisation}}", "Category:Portal-Class former country articles{{cat more|Wikipedia:WikiProject Former countries}} {{cat class | topic=former country | class=Portal }} {{CategoryTOC}}", "William Kinsler{{Infobox MLB player |name=William Kinsler |position=[[Outfielder]] |image= |bats=Unknown |throws=Unknown |birth_date={{birth date|1867|11|9}} |birth_place=[[New York, New York]] |death_date={{death date and age|1963|8|10|1867|11|9}} |death_place=[[Miami Beach, Florida]] |debutdate=June 8 |debutyear=1893 |debutteam=New York Giants |finaldate=June 8 |finalyear=1893 |finalteam=New York Giants |stat1label=[[Batting average]] |stat1value=.000 |stat2label=[[Home run]]s |stat2value=0 |stat3label=[[Run batted in|Runs batted in]] |stat3value=0 |teams= * [[San Francisco Giants|New York Giants]] ({{by|1893}}) }} '''William H. Kinsler ''' (November 9, 1867 – August 10, 1963) was a professional [[baseball]] player who played [[outfield]] in the Major Leagues for [[San Francisco Giants|New York Giants]] of the [[National League]]. He appeared in one game, on June 8, 1893. The following season he played for the [[Nashville Tigers]] in the [[Southern Association]]. ==External links== {{baseballstats|br=k/kinsl01}} {{S-start}} {{S-ach|rec}} {{Succession box| before = [[Buster Burrell]] | title =[[List of oldest living Major League Baseball players|Oldest recognized verified living baseball player]]| years = May 8, 1962 – August 10, 1963 | after = [[John Grimes (baseball)|John Grimes]]}} {{S-end}} {{Persondata | NAME = Kinsler, William | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = American baseball player | DATE OF BIRTH = November 9, 1867 | PLACE OF BIRTH = [[New York, New York]] | DATE OF DEATH = August 10, 1963 | PLACE OF DEATH = [[Miami Beach, Florida]] }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Kinsler, William}} [[Category:1867 births]] [[Category:1963 deaths]] [[Category:19th-century baseball players]] [[Category:Major League Baseball outfielders]] [[Category:Baseball players from New York]] [[Category:New York Giants (NL) players]] [[Category:Nashville Tigers players]] [[Category:Sportspeople from New York City]] {{US-baseball-outfielder-1860s-stub}}", "Indian cricket team in England in September 2011#REDIRECT [[Indian cricket team in England in 2011]]", "Mihail Cerchez{{no references|date=December 2010}} {{Infobox person | name = Mihail Cristodulo Cerchez | image = | image_size = 200 | caption = | birth_date = {{birth date|1839|06|08|df=y}} | birth_place = [[Bârlad]], [[Romania]] | death_date = {{death date and age|1885|07|12|1839|06|08|df=y}} | death_place = [[Iaşi]], [[Romania]] | body_discovered = | death_cause = | resting_place = "Eternitatea" cemetery of [[Iaşi]] | monuments = | nationality = | ethnicity = | citizenship = Romanian | known_for = Romanian officer; gained fame for fighting against the Turks. On 28 November 1877 in [[Pleven]] Castle, [[Osman Nuri Paşa|Osman Pasha]] surrendered his sword to him when he capitulated. }} '''Mihail Cristodulo Cerchez''' (1839–1885) was a Romanian [[general]] descended from an old Moldavian family of [[Circassians|Circassian]] origin (his surname is the Romanian word for "Circassian"). He led Romanian troops in the [[Romanian War of Independence]] (1877) in Griviţa, Bucov, Opanez, Smardan, [[Pleven]], [[Vidin]]. Cerchez was a colonel in the Romanian Army when he gained fame for fighting against the Turkish Army in the Balkans. On 28 November 1877 in [[Pleven]] Castle, [[Osman Nuri Paşa|Osman Pasha]] surrendered and gave him his sword. Out of gratitude for his efforts, in Romania, the 85th Logistics Support Battalion for the [[8th_Mixed_Artillery_Brigade_(Romania)|8th Mixed artillery brigade]] was named ''General Mihail Cerchez'' As a gratitude for his efforts toward the independence of Bulgaria, the Bulgarian people built a bust in the Romanian Soldier Mausoleum at [[Grivitsa]]. {{Authority control|VIAF=11106374}} {{Persondata | NAME = Cerchez, Mihail Cristodulo | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = Romanian general | DATE OF BIRTH = 8 June 1839 | PLACE OF BIRTH = [[Bârlad]], [[Romania]] | DATE OF DEATH = 12 July 1885 | PLACE OF DEATH = [[Iaşi]], [[Romania]] }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Cerchez, Mihail Cristodulo}} [[Category:1839 births]] [[Category:1885 deaths]] [[Category:19th-century Romanian people]] [[Category:People from Moldavia]] [[Category:Romanian military personnel of the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78)]] [[Category:Moldovan people of Armenian descent]] [[Category:Romanian people of Armenian descent]] [[Category:People from Bârlad]] [[Category:Burials at Eternitatea cemetery]]", "Psychology Press#REDIRECT [[Taylor & Francis]]", "Bruce R. Ough#REDIRECT [[Bruce Ough]]", "Behavioural Inhibition System #REDIRECT [[Reinforcement sensitivity theory]]", "Shimano Alfine 700#REDIRECT [[Shimano_Alfine#Alfine_700]]", "Stotham, Massachusetts#REDIRECT [[Stotham]]", "Stroehmann#REDIRECT [[Bimbo Bakeries USA]] {{redr|from brand|with possibilities}} [[Category:Brand name breads]] [[Category:Bakeries of the United States]]", "Hugh Cooper#REDIRECT[[Hugh Lincoln Cooper]]", "James Wilson (bishop){{Portal|Anglicanism}} '''James Wilson''' (died January 1857) was an Irish bishop of the Church of Ireland. A native of [[Dublin]], [[The Times]], Wednesday, Jan 07, 1857; pg. 10; Issue 22571; col A Ireland he was educated at [[Trinity College, Dublin]] and was for 17 years [[Curate]] at [[St. Audoen's Church| St. Audoen's Church, Dublin]]. Later he was [[Rector (ecclesiastical)|Rector]] of [[List of townlands of County Carlow|Killinane]] and [[Chancellor (ecclesiastical)|Chancellor]] of [[Old Leighlin|Leighlin]], posts he held until his elevation to the [[Episcopate]]. “Handbook of British Chronology” By Fryde, E. B;. Greenway, D.E;Porter, S; Roy, I: Cambridge, CUP, 1996 ISBN 0-521-56350-X, 9780521563505 He was nominated to the vacant post of [[Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross|Bishop of Cork]] on 24 June 1848 and consecrated on 30 July 1848 “A New History of Ireland” Moody,T.M;Martin,F.X;Byrne,F.J;Cosgrove,F:By Theodore William Moody, Francis X. Martin, Francis John Byrne, Art Cosgrove: Oxford, [[Oxford University Press]], 1976 ISBN 0-19-821745-5 following the death of the previous incumbent The [[Right Reverend|Right Rev]] [[Samuel Kyle (bishop)|Samuel Kyle]][[The Times]], Saturday, May 20, 1848; pg. 8; Issue 19868; col F In 1822 he was elected a member of the [[Royal Irish Academy]]. {{cite journal|title= Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy.Volume 6|page = 495|year = 1857|publisher= Royal Irish Academy|accessdate = 7 August 2013}} ==References== {{Reflist}} {{S-start}} {{S-rel}} {{S-bef|before= [[Samuel Kyle (bishop)|Samuel Kyle]]}} {{S-ttl|title=[[Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross]]|years=1848– 1857}} {{S-aft|after=[[William Fitzgerald (bishop)|William Fitzgerald]]}} {{End}} {{Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross}} {{Authority control|VIAF=41197350}} {{Persondata | NAME = Gregg, John | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = Bishop of Cork, Cloyne and Ross | DATE OF BIRTH = | PLACE OF BIRTH = | DATE OF DEATH = January, 1857 | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Wilson, James}} [[Category:Year of birth unknown]] [[Category:1857 deaths]] [[Category:Alumni of Trinity College, Dublin]] [[Category:Bishops of Cork, Cloyne and Ross]] [[Category:19th-century Anglican bishops]] [[Category:Members of the Royal Irish Academy]] {{Anglican-bishop-stub}} {{Ireland-reli-bio-stub}}", "Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest 2011{{ESC National Year | Year = 2011 | Country = Belarus | Preselection = Internal Selection | Preselection date = 12 March 2011 | Entrant = [[Anastasia Vinnikova]] | Song = [[I Love Belarus]] | SF result = ''Failed to qualify'' (14th) | Final result = }} '''[[Belarus]]''' participated in the '''[[Eurovision Song Contest 2011]]''' in [[Düsseldorf]], [[Germany]], selecting their entry internally for the second time in a row.{{cite web|title=43 nations on 2011 participants list!|url=http://www.eurovision.tv/page/news?id=22833&_t=43+nations+on+2011+participants+list!|last=Bakker|first=Sietse|date=31 December 2010|publisher=''European Broadcasting Union''|accessdate=31 December 2010}} This was the country's eighth participation in the contest since 2004.{{cite web|title=Belarus Country Profile|url=http://www.eurovision.tv/page/history/by-country/country?country=41|publisher=''European Broadcasting Union''|accessdate=2 January 2011| archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20101231060934/http://www.eurovision.tv/page/history/by-country/country?country=41| archivedate= 31 December 2010 | deadurl= no}} ==Initial rumours== Serbian newspaper [[Blic]] reported that Serbian producer [[Željko Joksimović]], who represented Serbia and Montenegro in [[Eurovision Song Contest 2004|2004]] and produced the Bosnian and Herzegovinian song in [[Eurovision Song Contest 2006|2006]] and the Serbian song in [[Eurovision Song Contest 2008|2008]], was chosen to write the 2011 Belarusian Eurovision entry for [[Irina Dorofeeva]]; official confirmation has been made.{{cite web|title=Belarus: Zeljko Joksimovic to pen the Belarus entry?|url=http://www.esctoday.com/news/read/16482|last=Sanjay|first=Jiandani|date=15 January 2011|publisher=''EscToday.com''|accessdate=15 January 2011}}http://escdaily.com/articles/6935 | Željko Joksimović to compose entry? ==Internal Selection== Just like [[Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest 2010|2010]], the Belarusian representative in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest will be internally chosen by an expert jury. Until 21 February, interested singers can send in their potential entries. The jury will then evaluate all songs and pick a winner by 1 March. There are no limitations regarding the nationality of the singers and songwriters taking part in the open selection.{{cite web|title=Belarus: Call for entries for internal selection|url=http://www.eurovision.tv/page/news?id=24583&_t=belarus_call_for_entries_for_internal_selection|last=Brey|first=Marco|date=25 January 2011|publisher=''Eurovision.tv''|accessdate=25 January 2011}} On 28 February it was announced that [[Anastasia Vinnikova]] will represent the country with the song "Born in Byelorussia".{{cite web|url=http://www.esctoday.com/news/read/16913|title=Anastasia Vinnikova to represent Belarus in Düsseldorf|last=Busa|first=Alexandru|date=2011-02-26|publisher=''ESCToday''|accessdate=2011-02-28}} Later on 3 March it was announced that the lyrics of the song will be changed to "[[I Am Belarusian]]" as the song quoted memories from the [[Soviet Union]] period.{{cite web|url=http://www.eurovision.tv/page/news?id=26503&_t=belarus_song_lyrics_changed_to_i_am_belarusian|title=Belarus: Song lyrics changed to "I Am Belarusian"|last=Brey|first=Marco|date=2011-03-03|publisher=EBU|accessdate=2011-03-03}} However on 12 March the song was withdrawn, after it was discovered that it was performed in public in the summer of 2010, and was replaced with the new song "[[I Love Belarus]]".{{cite web|url=http://www.esctoday.com/news/read/17004|title=Anastasia Vinnikova to sing I love Belarus|last=Busa|first=Alexandru|date=2011-03-12|publisher=''ESCToday''|accessdate=2011-03-12}} ==At Eurovision== Belarus performed sixteenth in the second semi-final of the contest on 12 May. Belarus placed fourteenth with 45 points and failed to qualify for the final. ===Points Awarded by Belarus[[Eurovision Song Contest 2008]]=== {{col-begin}} {{col-2}} ====Semi final==== {| class="wikitable" |- |width=20% bgcolor="gold"|'''12 points'''||{{Esc|UKR}} |- |width=20% bgcolor="silver"|'''10 points'''||{{Esc|MDA}} |- |width=20% bgcolor="#CC9966"|'''8 points'''||{{Esc|SWE}} |- |width=20%|'''7 points'''||{{Esc|MKD}} |- |width=20%|'''6 points'''||{{Esc|ISR}} |- |width=20%|'''5 points'''||{{Esc|BIH}} |- |width=20%|'''4 points'''||{{Esc|DEN}} |- |width=20%|'''3 points'''||{{Esc|SVK}} |- |width=20%|'''2 points'''||{{Esc|LAT}} |- |width=20%|'''1 point'''||{{Esc|EST}} |- |} {{col-2}} ====Final==== {| class="wikitable" |- |width=20% bgcolor="gold"|'''12 points'''||{{Esc|GEO}} |- |width=20% bgcolor="silver"|'''10 points'''||{{Esc|UKR}} |- |width=20% bgcolor="#CC9966"|'''8 points'''||{{Esc|GER}} |- |width=20%|'''7 points'''||{{Esc|MDA}} |- |width=20%|'''6 points'''||{{Esc|AZE}} |- |width=20%|'''5 points'''||{{Esc|RUS}} |- |width=20%|'''4 points'''||{{Esc|SWE}} |- |width=20%|'''3 points'''||{{Esc|ITA}} |- |width=20%|'''2 points'''||{{Esc|UK}} |- |width=20%|'''1 point'''||{{Esc|DEN}} |- |} {{col-end}} {| class="wikitable" |- |+Points Awarded to Belarus (Semi-Final 2) |- !width=20%|12 points !width=20%|10 points !width=20%|8 points !width=20%|7 points !width=20%|6 points |- | valign="top" | | valign="top" | *{{Esc|MDA}} *{{Esc|UKR}} | valign="top" | *{{Esc|MKD}} | valign="top" | | valign="top" | *{{Esc|LAT}} |- !width=20%|5 points !width=20%|4 points !width=20%|3 points !width=20%|2 points !width=20%|1 point |- | valign="top" | | valign="top" | *{{Esc|EST}} | valign="top" | *{{Esc|CYP}} | valign="top" | *{{Esc|BIH}} | valign="top" | *{{Esc|ROM}} *{{Esc|SVK}} |- |} ==References== {{Reflist}} ==External links== * [http://www.tvr.by/eng/eurovision2011.asp BTRC's official Eurovision site] {{Belarus in Eurovision}} {{Eurovision Song Contest 2011}} [[Category:Belarus in the Eurovision Song Contest]] [[Category:Countries in the Eurovision Song Contest 2011]] [[Category:2011 in Belarus|Eurovision]]", "Category:Military police by country{{Commons category|Military police by country}} [[Category:Categories by country]] [[Category:Law enforcement by country| ]] [[Category:Military police| ]]", "Giritli-Mustafa Nail Pasha#REDIRECT [[Mustafa Naili Pasha]]", "Template:Taxonomy/Pseudauchen{{Don't edit this line {{{machine code|}}}|{{{1}}} |rank=genus |link=Pseudauchen |parent=Rhadinorhynchidae |refs= }}", "Notable Books of the Year#REDIRECT[[The New York Times Book Review#notable]]", "File:Ernest Pollard - Wakefield Trinity.JPG== Summary == {{Information |Description = Rugby footballer Ernest Pollard |Source = Ogdens |Date = circa 1935 |Author = unknown |Permission = Used under fair use rationale to depict Ernest Pollard in the Wikipedia article Ernest Pollard. No known free use images are known to exist. Photograph is not replaceable as Ernest Pollard died in the 20th century. |other_versions = }} == Licensing == {{Non-free historic image|image has rationale=yes}} {{Non-free image rationale |Article = Ernest Pollard (rugby league) |Purpose = Used under fair use rationale to depict Ernest Pollard. |Replaceability = No known free use images are known to exist. Photograph is not replaceable Ernest Pollard died in the 20th century. }} [[Category:Wakefield Trinity Wildcats players]]", "Wikipedia:Meetup/Delhi/WikipediaDay2011{{Wikipedia:Meetup/Delhi/Invite}} {{see also|Wikipedia:Wikiday|History of Wikipedia}} {{Shortcut|WP:MDH3}} [[File:10yrs-contributing_k.svg|thumb|200px|right|Wikipedia 10th birthday anniversary ]]January 15 is known as '''[[Wikipedia:Wikipedia Day|Wikipedia Day]]''' to [[Wikipedia:Wikipedians|Wikipedians]]. On this date in the year 2001, the wiki-based [[Wikipedia]] project went public after spending five days on [[Nupedia]]. {{meetup}} ==Wikipedia Day 2011== January 15, 2011 will mark a decade of Wikipedia. Founded by Jimmy Wales in 2001, Wikipedia has become the fifth most popular website in the world with 410 million monthly readers (comScore, November 2010). Just three years after its founding, Wikipedia reached 500,000 articles in 50 languages. Now, at 17 million articles in 270 languages and growing, Wikipedia is the only top-ten website in the world that is truly user-generated, supported and maintained. Over the last ten years, hundreds of thousands of people have contributed more than one billion edits to this vital resource. == Intended Audience == The event is intended for the following: * General public - anyone interested or curious about [[Wikipedia]] or [[Wikimedia]]. * Wikipedia users - current users of Wikipedia or any Wikimedia projects. * Wikipedians - Contributors to Wikipedia content in all languages. (This is not a English Wikipedia event alone) * Indian Language specialists and those working on Computing in Indian languages. '''This is a free event and open to all.''' If you are interested in coming, add your name below participants. ==Date & Timing== Saturday, '''15-Jan-2011''' 11:00 AM to 5:00 PM [[IST]]
==Venue== Seminar Hall, I.I.T. Delhi Hauz Khas, New Delhi ==Contact Organizers== * Anirudh Bhati +91 9328712208 / +91 9925015653 == Pre Meetup Discussions== Pre-Meeting discussions can be on the [[Wikipedia talk:Meetup/Delhi/WikipediaDay2011|talk page]] please. ==Agenda / Events == Please visit http://ten.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delhi ==Participants== ===Attending=== * Anirudh Bhati, [[User:Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington]]. * Srikeit Tadepalli, [[User:Srikeit]] * Noopur Raval * Mayur,[[user:mayur]] * Ashish Gaurav, [[User:Ashish.gs]] * Siddharth Tripathi, [[User:Siddharth.tripathi]] * Agnivesh Patel, [[User:agni10]] ==Post-meetup summary/Blogs/News== Please list post meeting coverage links here. ===Twitter=== * Tweet with '''#WP10''' hashtag [http://twitter.com/#search?q=%23#WP10 http://twitter.com/#search?q=%23#WP10] ===Media coverage=== Please list coverage of this event by media here. ===Photos=== ''Please upload to commons and add category [[Commons:Category:Wikipedia Day 2011 Delhi]]'' {{Wikipedia:Meetup/India}} {{Wikipedia:Meetup Box}} [[Wikipedia meetups in 2011|Delhi]] [[Category:Wikipedia meetups in Delhi]]
", "Mulan Tou Lighthouse#REDIRECT [[Mulantou Lighthouse]]", "Template:Child taxa/Mucoromycotina{{Auto taxon list {{{depth|}}} |1 = Endogonales |2 = Mortierellales |3 = Mucorales }}", "Wikipedia:WikiProject Odisha/to do{| cellpadding="3" style="background:none" |
[[Image:Evolution-tasks-old.png|16px]] '''[[Wikipedia:WikiProject Odisha|Odisha-related tasks]]'''
  • '''[[Wikipedia:Requested articles|Requests]]:''' ''[[Wikipedia:WikiProject Odisha/Requested articles|More...]]''
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  • '''[[Wikipedia:Glossary#Wiki markup|Wikify]]:''' ''[[:Category:Articles that need to be wikified|More...]]''
  • '''[[Wikipedia:Cleanup|Cleanup]]:''' ''[[:Category:Cleanup by month|More...]]''
  • '''[[Wikipedia:Duplicate articles|Merge]]:''' ''[[:Category:Articles to be merged|More...]]''
  • '''Expand:''' ''[[:Category:Articles to be expanded|More...]]''
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  • '''[[Wikipedia:Translation into English|Translate]]:'''
  • '''[[Template:Resources for collaboration|Collaborate]]:''' [[Template:Active Wiki Fixup Projects|More...]]
  • '''[[Wikipedia:Requested pictures|Requested images]]:'''
  • '''Other requests:'''
  • |} [[Category:WikiProject Odisha]]
    ", "File:Christmas in Paradise.jpg== Summary == == Fair use image data== {{Non-free image data |Description = Promotional image for the TV film 'Christmas In Paradise'. |Source = http://ideasorlando.com/projects/christmas-in-paradise/ |Portion = Whole. |Low_resolution = Image was selected in order to maintain the quality intended, without being unnecessarily high resolution. |other_information = Intellectual property owned by {{#if:Lifetime cable television network|Lifetime cable television}}. }} == Fair use rationale == {{Non-free image rationale |Article = Christmas in Paradise |Purpose = Used for purposes of illustration in an educational article about the entity represented by the image.
    The image is used as the primary means of visual identification of this article topic. |Replaceability = Protected by copyright, therefore a free use alternative won't exist. }} == Licensing == {{Non-free promotional||image_has_rationale=yes}}
    ", "Category:1708 establishments by country{{Estcatbycountry|170|8}}", "Wikipedia:Ref desk/Computing#REDIRECT [[Wikipedia:Reference desk/Computing]]", "Bronikowski'''Bronikowski''' is a Polish surname: * [[Friedrich von Oppeln-Bronikowski]] (1873 - 1936), a German writer, translator, publisher and cultural historian * [[Hermann von Oppeln-Bronikowski|Hermann (Leopold August) von Oppeln-Bronikowski]] (1899 - 1966), a German military man * [[Franciszek Bronikowski|Franciszek (Jan) Bronikowski]] (1907 - 1964), a Polish rower == See also == * [[Von Oppeln-Bronikowski]] {{surname|Bronikowski (f. [[Bronikowska]]), Oppeln-Bronikowski}} [[Category:Polish-language surnames]]", "Adeje, Spain#REDIRECT [[Adeje]]", "Portal:United States/Selected location/20{{Portal:United States/Selected location/Layout |image=Downtown Kent Ohio 2.jpg |size= |caption=Downtown Kent, September 2009 |text='''[[Kent, Ohio|Kent]]''' is a city in the U.S. state of [[Ohio]] and the largest city in [[Portage County, Ohio|Portage County]]. It is located along the [[Cuyahoga River]] in [[Greater Cleveland|Northeastern Ohio]] on the western edge of the county. The population was 27,906 at the [[United States Census 2000|2000 United States Census]] and 27,983 in the 2008 estimate. The city is counted as part of the [[Akron metropolitan area|Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area]] and the larger [[Greater Cleveland|Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area]]. Historically a manufacturing center, education is the city's largest economic sector with Kent State University the city's, and one of the region's, largest employers. The city is governed by a [[council-manager government|council-manager system]] with a [[city manager]], a nine-member city council, and a mayor. Kent has nearly 20 parks and preserves and hosts a number of annual festivals including ones related to [[Earth Day]], folk music, and the U.S. [[Independence Day (United States)|Independence Day]]. In addition to the [[Kent State Golden Flashes|Kent State athletic teams]], the city also hosts a number of amateur and local sporting events at various times during the year. Kent is part of the Cleveland-Akron media market and is the city of license for three local radio stations and three television stations and includes the regional affiliates for [[National Public Radio]] (NPR) and the [[Public Broadcasting Service]] (PBS). |link=Kent, Ohio }}[[Category:United States portal|{{SUBPAGENAME}}]]", "P:SPACEFLIGHT#REDIRECT [[Portal:Spaceflight]] {{Redr|to portal|rsh}}", "Full nelson bomb#REDIRECT [[Powerbomb#Full nelson bomb]]", "Ortica (district of Milan)#REDIRECT [[Ortica]]", "File:In a Different Light (Everclear album).jpg== Summary == {{Non-free use rationale album cover |Article= In a Different Light (Everclear album) |Use=Infobox |Source= |Name= In a Different Light |Artist= Everclear |Label= |Graphic Artist= |Item= |Type= |Website= |Owner= |Commentary= |Description= |Portion= |Low_resolution= |Purpose= |Replaceability= |other_information= }} == Licensing == {{Non-free album cover |image has rationale=yes}}", "Chargé d’affairs#REDIRECT [[Chargé d'affaires]]", "Category:People from Masfjorden{{DEFAULTSORT:Masfjorden}} [[Category:People from Nordhordland]] [[Category:People by municipality in Norway]] [[Category:Masfjorden]] {{cat more|Masfjorden}}", "1995 African U-17 Championship{{Infobox International Football Competition | tourney_name = African U-17 Championship | year = 1995 | other_titles = | image = | size = | caption = | city = [[Bamako]] | country = Mali | dates = | num_teams = 8 | confederations = 1 | venues = | cities = | champion_other = {{fbu|17|GHA}} | count = 1 | second_other = {{fbu|17|NGR}} | third_other = {{fbu|17|GUI}} | fourth_other = {{fbu|17|MLI}} | matches = 16 | goals = 50 | nextseason = [[1997 African U-17 Championship|1997]] }} The '''1995 African U-17 Championship''', was the first U-17 football competition organized by the [[Confederation of African Football]] (CAF). The tournament took place in [[Mali]]. The top three teams qualified for the [[1995 FIFA U-17 World Championship]]. ==Qualification== ===First round=== The winners advanced to the Second Round. {{TwoLeg start}} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|RSA}}'''||4 – 2|{{fbu|17|ZIM}}||3 – 1|1 – 1}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|ZAM}}||6 – 1 [[disqualification|d]] |'''{{fbu|17|BOT}}'''||6 – 0|0 – 1}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|MUS}}||0 – 4|{{fbu|17|MWI|1964}}||0 – 1|0 – 3}} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|EGY}}'''||5 – 1|{{fbu|17|ALG}}||2 – 0|3 – 1}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|GNB}}||1 – 2|'''{{fbu|17|GUI}}'''||1 – 1|0 – 1}} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|NGR}}'''||5 – 1|{{fbu|17|ANG}}||2 – 1|3 – 0}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|TOG}}||1 – 3|'''{{fbu|17|GHA}}'''||0 – 1|1 – 2}} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|TUN|1959}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|BEN}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|CIV}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|COG}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|SLE}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|SEN}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|TAN}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|CMR}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|SUD}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|UGA}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|MOZ}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|ZAI}}|| – | – }} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|MAR}}'''||[[Walkover|w/o]]|{{fbu|17|CPV}}|| – | – }} |} ===Second round=== The winners advanced to the Finals. {{TwoLeg start}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|RSA}}||0 – 2|'''{{fbu|17|MOZ}}'''||0 – 0|0 – 2}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|EGY}}||0 – 1|'''{{fbu|17|SUD}}'''||0 – 0|0 – 1}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|MAR}}||1 – 2|'''{{fbu|17|TUN|1959}}'''||1 – 0|0 – 2}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|TAN}}||0 – 2|'''{{fbu|17|GUI}}'''||0 – 0|0 – 2}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|CIV}}||2 – 4|'''{{fbu|17|NGR}}'''||1 – 1|1 – 3}} {{TwoLegResult|{{fbu-rt|17|SLE}}||1 – 2|'''{{fbu|17|GHA}}'''||1 – 0|0 – 2}} {{TwoLegResult|'''{{fbu-rt|17|BOT}}'''||2 – 1|{{fbu|17|MWI|1964}}||2 – 0|0 – 1}} |} ===Qualified teams=== *{{fbu|17|BOT}} *{{fbu|17|GHA}} *{{fbu|17|GUI}} *{{fbu|17|MLI}} (host nation) *{{fbu|17|MOZ}} *{{fbu|17|NGR}} *{{fbu|17|SUD}} *{{fbu|17|TUN|1959}} ==Group stage== {| class="wikitable" |- !Legend |- bgcolor=#ccffcc |Advanced to semi-finals |} ===Group A=== {| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" |- |width="60%"| {| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;" |- !width=185|Team !width=20|{{Tooltip| Pld | Played}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| W | Won}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| D | Drawn}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| L | Lost}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GF | Goals for}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GA | Goals against}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GD | Goal difference}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| Pts | Points}} |- bgcolor=ccffcc |align="left"|{{fbu|17|GHA}} |3||3||0||0||10||0||+10||'''9''' |- bgcolor=ccffcc |align="left"|{{fbu|17|MLI}} |3||1||0||2||3||3||0||'''3''' |- bgcolor= |align="left"|{{fbu|17|MOZ}} |3||1||0||2||3||5||−2||'''3''' |- bgcolor= |align="left"|{{fbu|17|TUN|1959}} |3||1||0||2||2||10||−8||'''3''' |} {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GHA}} |score = 1–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|MLI}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|TUN}} |score = 2–1 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|MOZ}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GHA}} |score = 2–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|MOZ}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|MLI}} |score = 2–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|TUN}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GHA}} |score = 7–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|TUN}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|MLI}} |score = 1–2 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|MOZ}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ===Group B=== {| cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="100%" |- |width="60%"| {| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;" |- !width=185|Team !width=20|{{Tooltip| Pld | Played}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| W | Won}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| D | Drawn}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| L | Lost}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GF | Goals for}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GA | Goals against}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| GD | Goal difference}} !width=20|{{Tooltip| Pts | Points}} |- bgcolor=ccffcc |style="text-align:left"|{{fbu|17|NGR}} |3||3||0||0||9||1||+8||'''9''' |- bgcolor=ccffcc |style="text-align:left"|{{fbu|17|GUI}} |3||1||1||1||5||3||+2||'''4''' |- bgcolor= |style="text-align:left"|{{fbu|17|SUD}} |3||1||1||1||3||5||−2||'''4''' |- bgcolor= |style="text-align:left"|{{fbu|17|BOT}} |3||0||0||3||1||9||−8||'''0''' |} {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|NGR}} |score = 4–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|MOZ}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GUI}} |score = 1–1 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|SUD}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|NGR}} |score = 3–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|SUD}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GUI}} |score = 3–0 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|BOT}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|NGR}} |score = 2–1 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|GUI}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|SUD}} |score = 2–1 |report = |team2 = {{fbu|17|BOT}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ==Knock-out stage== {{Round4-with third ||'''{{fbu|17|GHA}}'''|'''3'''|{{fbu|17|GUI}}|0 ||{{fbu|17|MLI}}|1|'''{{fbu|17|NGR}}'''|'''3''' ||'''{{fbu|17|GHA}}''' ([[Extra time|a.e.t.]])|'''3'''|{{fbu|17|NGR}}|1 ||'''{{fbu|17|GUI}}''' ([[Extra time|a.e.t.]])|'''2'''|{{fbu|17|MLI}}|1 }} ===Semi-finals=== {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GHA}} |score = 3–0 |report = |team2 ={{fbu|17|GUI}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ---- {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|MLI}} |score = 1–3 |report = |team2 ={{fbu|17|NGR}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ===Third place match=== {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GUI}} |score = 2–1 |aet=yes |report = |team2 ={{fbu|17|MLI}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ===Final=== {{footballbox |date = |time = |team1 = {{fbu-rt|17|GHA}} |score = 3–1 |aet=yes |report = |team2 ={{fbu|17|NGR}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = |attendance = |referee = }} ==Winners== {{winners-other|1995 CAF Under-17 Championship|GHA|[[Ghana national under-17 football team|Ghana]]|First}} ==Countries to participate in 1995 FIFA U-17 World Championship== The 3 teams which qualified for [[1995 FIFA U-17 World Championship]]. *{{fbu|17|GHA}} *{{fbu|17|NGR}} *{{fbu|17|GUI}} ==References== {{reflist}} ==External links== *[http://www.rsssf.com/tablesa/afr-u17-95.html RSSSF.com] *[http://www.cafonline.com/competition/can-u-17_2011/pastcomp/1995 Confederation of African Football] {{CAF African U-17 Football Championship}} [[Category:African U-17 Championship]] [[Category:1995 in African football|Under-17 Championship]] [[Category:1995 in Mali|African Under-17 Championship]] [[Category:International association football competitions hosted by Mali]]", "Xinwu, Taoyuan#REDIRECT [[Xinwu District]]", "Jiri Vesely#REDIRECT [[Jiří Veselý]] {{R from title without diacritics}}", "What Lies Below{{good article}} {{About|the television episode|the video game|Below (video game)}} {{Infobox Television episode | Title = What Lies Below | Series = [[Fringe (TV series)|Fringe]] | Image =[[File:Fringe What Lies Below.jpg|250px]] | Caption = Walter and Broyles block an infected man from escaping the building | Season = 2 | Episode = 13 | Airdate = January 21, 2010 | Production = 3X5112 | Writer = [[Jeff Vlaming]] | Director = [[Deran Sarafian]] | Guests = *[[Geoff Pierson]] as Arnold McFadden *[[Demore Barnes]] as Agent Bill Hubert *[[Conrad Coates]] as Vincent Ames *[[Natassia Malthe]] as Linda *[[David Richmond-Peck]] as [[Crime scene investigator|CSI]] Detective Kassel *[[Brendan Beiser]] as Steve *Nicolas Von Zill as Radjan Vandenkemp | Episode list = [[Fringe (season 2)|''Fringe'' (season 2)]]
    [[List of Fringe episodes|List of ''Fringe'' episodes]] | Prev = [[Johari Window (Fringe)|Johari Window]] | Next = [[The Bishop Revival]] }} "'''What Lies Below'''" is the 13th [[List of Fringe episodes|episode]] of the [[Fringe (season 2)|second season]] of the American [[science fiction]] [[drama]] [[television program|television series]] ''[[Fringe (TV series)|Fringe]]''. Set in a [[quarantine]]d [[Boston]] office building, the episode revolves around a thousands-year-old [[virus]] that infects and then influences its victims to attempt to spread the contagion outside of the building. It was the third ''Fringe'' episode to be written by supervising producer [[Jeff Vlaming]], while it was director [[Deran Sarafian]]'s only credit for the series to date. After his character becomes infected, actor [[Joshua Jackson]] commented during shooting to "just imagine the worst hangover I've ever had and multiply it by ten". "What Lies Below" first aired in the United States on January 21, 2010 on the [[Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox network]]. An estimated 6.90 million viewers watched the episode, and it received mixed reviews from critics, with one calling it average and predictable. ==Plot== In [[Boston]], a visibly sick man from the [[Netherlands]] arrives at an office building, only to collapse and die. The veins in his body erupt with blood, spraying surrounding witnesses. The Fringe team arrive on site, and while interviewing the witnesses, another man also becomes sick. The sick man attempts to leave the building, only to be stopped by [[Walter Bishop (Fringe)|Walter]] ([[John Noble]]), who sees the man spray out blood and realizes there is a [[Infectious disease|contagion]]. The building is [[Quarantine|quarantined]] with Walter's son [[Peter Bishop|Peter]] ([[Joshua Jackson]]), FBI agent [[Olivia Dunham|Olivia]] ([[Anna Torv]]), and the rest of the witnesses still inside. The [[Center for Disease Control|CDC]] arrives and soon clash with Walter, who wants some blood samples to take back to his lab at [[Harvard]]. As another witness, the receptionist, falls ill, the rest begin panicking that the virus is an airborne contagion. Olivia discovers that the Dutch man was an oil consultant who arrived to meet with Mr. Ames, one of the other office workers trapped in the building. Walter explains that viruses have forms of "personalities," that influence their hosts to act in certain ways. He posits that the virus is not airborne after all, but needs more samples for further tests. Meanwhile the infected receptionist is influenced by the virus, jumps out a window, and also scares Peter into falling into an infected pool of blood. The woman is sprayed with decontaminate spray, as Peter quickly rinses himself off. Knowing he is likely infected, Peter searches through the Dutch man's pockets, leading to the discovery of a briefcase infected by the virus. Walter continues his theory that the virus wants to escape the building, hence the multiple escape attempts by the infected. The virus was found on a sample taken 10 miles below the earth, and may be 75,000 years old and responsible for wiping out the [[Ice Age]] [[mammals]]. As a [[bio-hazard]] team enters the building to test people for the virus, a CDC official orders the army to prepare for a "level six eradication", because they still do not know how to contain it. Peter manages to fake the test and hide his infection. He and Olivia begin leading a team of healthy people outside the building, but before Peter is able to leave, his nose bleeds, clearly revealing that he is infected. While the virus overtakes Peter's health and sanity, Walter becomes increasingly distressed as he fears losing his son again, and accidentally blurts out that he "can't let Peter die again" to [[Astrid Farnsworth|Astrid]] ([[Jasika Nicole]]). Despite the threat of eradication and death, he and Astrid remain in the building to run further tests on the Dutch man. Walter realizes that [[sulfuric]] ash killed the virus thousands of years ago, and successfully finds a cure with some [[horseradish]] he found in the office break room. The CDC agrees to allow Olivia to enter the building and use the air ventilation system to spread some fentanyl gas, which will gain them time while the cure is synthesized. While inside, Peter attacks her, but Olivia is able to turn the air on, successfully knocking out the building's occupants. Peter and everyone else are successfully cured. Astrid later approaches Walter and asks what he meant when he said he couldn't let Peter die again, to which he responds by saying "some things are meant to be left alone." ==Production== [[File:Fringe Panel 3 2010 CC.jpg|right|thumb|[[Peter Bishop]], played by actor [[Joshua Jackson]] ''(pictured left)'' becomes infected with an ancient virus in the episode.]] Supervising producer [[Jeff Vlaming]] wrote "What Lies Below", his second episode of the season.{{cite web|url=http://www.tvguide.com/celebrities/jeff-vlaming/credits/243586 |title=Jeff Vlaming: Credits |last= |first=|work=[[TV Guide]] |date=|accessdate=2011-05-25}} Filmmaker [[Deran Sarafian]] served as the director,{{cite web|url=http://sfscope.com/2010/01/black-oil-reduxfringes-what-li.html |title=Black Oil Redux—Fringe's "What Lies Beneath"|last=Stegall |first=Sarah |publisher=[[SFScope]] |date=2010-01-22 |accessdate=2011-05-25}} his first and only ''Fringe'' directional credit.{{cite web|url=http://www.tvguide.com/celebrities/deran-sarafian/credits/188874 |title=Deran Sarafian: Credits |last= |first=|work=[[TV Guide]] |date=|accessdate=2011-05-25}} The episode featured one-time guest appearances by actors [[Demore Barnes]], [[Geoff Pierson]], [[Conrad Coates]], [[Natassia Malthe]], and [[David Richmond-Peck]].{{cite web|url=http://www.tvguide.com/tvshows/fringe-2010/episode-13-season-2/lies/293813 |title=Fringe Episode: "What Lies Below" |last=|first=|work=[[TV Guide]] |date=|accessdate=2011-05-25}} Actor [[Joshua Jackson]], who plays an infected [[Peter Bishop]] in the episode, noted during shooting that he found inspiration from "imagin[ing] the worst hangover I've ever had and multiply it by ten".{{cite video |people=[[Anna Torv]], [[Joshua Jackson]], [[Deran Sarafian]], Michael Mitchell, Bob Comer, Angela Uyeda |date=2010 |title=Analyzing the Scene for "What Lies Below"| medium=DVD |publisher=[[Warner Bros.]] Television |location=''Fringe: The Complete Second Season'' Disc 3 }} Actress [[Jasika Nicole]] was pleased that the writers decided to let her character discover Walter's secret, commenting "Astrid finds out in a really emotional way because Walter lets it slip to her accidentally. I think that it was really nice for them to invite Astrid into the importance of that instead of keeping her in the dark. At least she knows that she's a part of this family and this affects her. I think she serves as a really important character in these later episodes because Astrid is kind of the only person that isn't directly involved with everything that is still on his side. She has to step up to the plate and be that comfort for him because if he doesn't have anyone there, he's basically going to regress and go back to the place, I think mentally, that he was in when he was in the mental institution. And of course we don't want that."{{cite video |people=[[Anna Torv]], [[Akiva Goldsman]], [[J.J. Abrams]], [[Jeff Pinkner]], [[J. H. Wyman]], [[Joshua Jackson]], [[John Noble]], [[Jasika Nicole]], [[Josh Singer]], [[Lance Reddick]], Jeffrey Vlaming, David Wilcox|date=2010 |title=Beyond the Pattern: The Mythology of ''Fringe''| medium=DVD |publisher=[[Warner Bros.]] Television |location=''Fringe'': The Complete Second Season Disc 6 }} One of the episode's scenes involves an infected woman jumping out of the building onto a van in an attempt to spread the virus further. To simulate her 160-feet fall, stuntwoman Angela Uyeda was placed in a crane 10 to 15 feet above the van and asked to jump onto the van below. The crew removed the roof structure on the van, and carefully rigged it to cave-in upon impact but also make it as painless as possible for Uyeda. To achieve this, they modified the ribs that supported the roof by placing them on pins that would snap, and also added a three-millimeter glass plate that would snap between two sheets of black hard nylon-type plastic to further emphasize the distance she jumped. ==Reception== ===Ratings=== The first airing of "What Lies Below" was watched by an estimated 6.90 million viewers in the United States, with a 2.6/7 rating for those aged 18–49.{{cite web|url=http://tvbythenumbers.com/2010/01/22/tv-ratings-thursday-deep-end-underwater-bones-annual-high-csi-mentalist-greys-series-lows/39739/|title=TV Ratings Thursday: ''Deep End'' Underwater; ''Bones'' High; ''CSI'', ''Mentalist'', ''Grey's'' Series Lows|last=Gorman|first=Bill|publisher=[[TV by the Numbers]] |date=2010-01-22 |accessdate=2011-01-30}} [[SFScope]] writer Sarah Stegall considered these numbers to be "steady but stagnant ratings", as they were "not much different" from the [[Johari Window (Fringe)|previous week]]. ===Reviews=== "What Lies Below" received mixed reviews from television critics. ''[[The A.V. Club]]'' contributor Todd VanDerWerff graded the episode with a B-, explaining that despite some nice moments, it was "an episode of the show that started out utterly predictably, continued along an utterly predictable path and yet somehow got fairly enjoyable by the end just through sheer force of will on the part of the cast."{{cite web|url=http://www.avclub.com/articles/what-lies-below,37379/ |title="What Lies Below" |last=VanDerWerff |first=Todd|work=[[The A.V. Club]] |date=2010-01-22|accessdate=2011-01-30}} [[IGN]]'s Ramsey Isler also found the episode average and predictable, as it lacked "much of the quintessential storytelling elements that, once upon a time, made this one of the best shows on TV." Like many other critics, Isler thought the episode was too similar to ''[[The X-Files]]'', and gave it 7.0/10.{{cite web|url=http://tv.ign.com/articles/106/1062874p1.html |title=Fringe: "What Lies Below" Review |last=Isler |first=Ramsey |publisher=[[IGN]] |date=2010-01-22|accessdate=2011-01-30}} [[TV Squad]] columnist Jane Boursaw thought Walter discovering a cure was a little far-fetched, and wished Broyles was a greater part of the show.{{cite web|url=http://www.tvsquad.com/2010/01/22/review-fringe-what-lies-below-recap/ |title=Review: Fringe - What Lies Below |last=Boursaw|first=Jane|publisher=[[TV Squad]]|date=2010-01-22 |accessdate=2011-01-30}} ''[[Television Without Pity]]'' gave the episode a B+.{{cite web|url=http://www.televisionwithoutpity.com/show/fringe/what_lies_below_1.php |title=Maybe All I Need is a Shot in the Arm |last=MacEachern |first=Daniel |work=[[Television Without Pity]]|date=2010-01-21 |accessdate=2011-01-30}} Andrew Hanson from the ''[[Los Angeles Times]]'' thought it was a really good episode, and even wished it could have been turned into a movie, were ''Fringe'' to get into filmmaking.{{cite web|url=http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/showtracker/2010/01/fringe-confinement.html |title='Fringe': Confinement |last=Hanson |first=Andrew|work=[[Los Angeles Times]] |date=2010-01-22 |accessdate=2011-01-30}} Josh Wigler of [[MTV]] thought it was a "pretty cool" mystery-of-the-week, and "while not quite as strong as when the mythology is in full gear, 'What Lies Below' was nonetheless a compelling hour of television." He was however bothered that there was no further information about the [[parallel universe (fiction)|parallel universe]].{{cite web|url=http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2010/01/22/fringe-episode-213-recap-what-lies-below/ |title='Fringe' Episode 2.13 Recap: 'What Lies Below' |last=Wigler |first=Josh |publisher=[[MTV]] |date=2010-01-22 |accessdate=2011-01-30}} [[UGO Networks]] writer Alex Zalben compared "What Lies Below" to the similarly-plotted ''The X-Files'' episode "[[Ice (The X-Files)|Ice]]". Zalben concluded, "Though both episodes are very good, 'Ice' is one of the best ''X-Files'' hours ever, perfectly channeling – but not ripping off – [[John Carpenter]]'s ''[[The Thing (1982 film)|The Thing]]''."{{cite web | url = http://www.ugo.com/tv/fringe-versus-x-files?page=2 | title = Fringe vs. The X-Files: Which Does Weird Science Better? | date = 2010-04-05 | accessdate = 2012-03-18 | publisher= [[UGO Networks]] | first = Zalben| last= Alex}} ===Awards and nominations=== {{See also|List of awards and nominations received by Fringe}} Director Deran Sarafian submitted "What Lies Below" for consideration in the [[Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series|Outstanding Directing for a Drama Series]] category at the [[62nd Primetime Emmy Awards]].{{Cite web|url=http://goldderbyforums.latimes.com/eve/forums/a/tpc/f/1106078764/m/685107714 |title=Drama Series Predictions & Analysis |work=[[Los Angeles Times]] |date=2010-06-04 |accessdate=2011-06-05}} He did not receive a nomination.{{Cite web|url=http://www.emmys.com/nominations?tid=131 |title=2010 Emmy Nominations: Outstanding Directing For A Drama Series |publisher=[[Academy of Television Arts and Sciences]] |date= |accessdate=2011-06-17}} ==References== {{reflist|30em}} ==External links== {{Wikiquote|Fringe#What_Lies_Below_.5B2.12.5D|What Lies Below}} * [http://www.fox.com/fringe/recaps/season-2/episode-13/ "What Lies Below"] at [[Fox Broadcasting Company|Fox]] * {{IMDb episode|1537134}} * {{tv.com episode|fringe/what-lies-below-1316834}} {{Fringe}} {{Fringe episodes}} [[Category:Fringe (season 2) episodes]] [[Category:2010 television episodes]] [[Category:Fictional viruses]] [[Category:Fictional microorganisms]]
    ", "White Wires#REDIRECT [[The White Wires]]", "Hurray#REDIRECT [[Cheering]]", "Stribeck–Hersey curve#REDIRECT [[Tribology]]", "Syrian Civil War{{redirects here|War in Syria|other wars in Syria|Syrian War (disambiguation)}} {{pp-move-indef}} {{Syrian Civil War infobox}} {{use dmy dates|date=November 2013}} {{Campaignbox Syrian civil war}} {{Ba'athism sidebar}} The '''Syrian Civil War''' ({{lang-ar|الحرب الأهلية السورية ''al-Ḥarb al-Ahlīyah as-Sūrīyah''}}, {{IPA-ar|ʔalˈħaɾb ʔalʔahˈliːja ʔas.suːˈɾiːja}}), also known as the '''Syrian Revolution''', is an ongoing armed conflict taking place in [[Syria]]. The [[Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War | unrest]] began in the early spring of 2011 within the context of [[Arab Spring]] protests, with nationwide protests against President [[Bashar al-Assad]]'s government, whose forces responded with violent crackdowns. The conflict gradually developed from popular protests to an armed rebellion after months of military sieges.{{cite news | url = http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2012/02/22/bombardment-syria-s-homs-kills-21-people.html |title= Bombardment of Syria's Homeless kills 21 people| first1 =Khaled Yacoub | last1 = Oweis | first2 = Erika | last2 = Solomon|agency=Reuters|date=22 February 2012 | accessdate =21 July 2014}}{{Dead link|date=August 2014}} The armed opposition consists of various groups that were formed during the course of the conflict, mostly the [[Free Syrian Army]], which was the first to take up arms in 2011, and the [[Islamic Front (Syria) |Islamic Front]] formed in 2013. In 2013, [[Hezbollah]] entered the war in support of the Syrian army.{{cite news |url= http://news.yahoo.com/hezbollah-chief-says-group-fighting-syria-162721809.html |title = Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria |agency= Associated Press |date= 25 May 2013 | accessdate=25 May 2013 | first =Bassem | last = Mroue}}{{cite web| work = Threat matrix | publisher = Long war journal | url = http://www.longwarjournal.org/threat-matrix/archives/2012/11/al_nusrah_front_claims_3_more.php | title = Al Nusrah Front claims 3 more suicide attacks in Daraa | date = 27 November 2012}} In the east, the [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant]] (ISIL), a jihadist militant group originating from [[Iraq]], made very rapid military gains in both Syria and [[Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014) | Iraq]], eventually [[Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War | conflicting]] with the other rebels. In July 2014, ISIL controlled a third of Syria's territory and most of its oil and gas production, thus establishing itself as the major opposition force. By July 2013, the Syrian government was in control of approximately 30–40% of the country's territory and 60% of the Syrian population.{{cite news | last =Hubbard | first = Ben| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/18/world/middleeast/momentum-shifts-in-syria-bolstering-assads-position.html |title= Momentum Shifts in Syria, Bolstering Assad's Position |work= The New York Times |date = 17 July 2013|accessdate= 10 August 2013}} A United Nations report in late 2012 described the conflict as being "overtly [[Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War|sectarian in nature]]", between mostly [[Alawite]] government forces, militias and other [[Shia]] groups{{cite web| first =Martin | last = Chulov | location= Najaf |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/12/iraq-battle-dead-valley-peace-syria |title=Controlled by Iran, the deadly militia recruiting Iraq's men to die in Syria |date=12 March 2014 |work=The Guardian |accessdate=2014-05-21}} fighting largely against [[Sunni]]-dominated rebel groups,[http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21580162-sectarian-rivalry-reverberating-region-making-many-muslims "Sunni v Shia, here and there"]. ''The Economist''. Retrieved 14 September 2013{{cite news|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/12/2012122015525051365.html|title=UN says Syria conflict is 'overtly sectarian'|date=20 December 2012}} although both opposition and government forces have denied this.{{cite web|url=https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/lebanonnews/nasrallah-says-hezbollah-will-not-bow-to-sectarian-threats|title=Nasrallah says Hezbollah will not bow to sectarian threats|publisher=NOW News|date=14 June 2013|accessdate=21 October 2013}}{{cite web|url=http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/65685|title=Syria Opposition Contradicts U.N., Says Conflict not Sectarian|publisher=[[Naharnet]]|date=22 December 2012|accessdate=21 October 2013}} Due to [[Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War|foreign involvement]] this conflict has been called a [[proxy war]].{{cite web|url=http://news.yahoo.com/arming-syria-rebels-us-drawn-proxy-war-190907079.html|title=By arming Syria rebels, US drawn into proxy war|date=15 June 2013|work=Yahoo News}} As of April 2014 the death toll had risen above 190,000.{{cite web|last1=Smith|first1=Laura|title=More than 191,000 dead in Syria, UN rights chief slams 'global paralysis'|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2014/08/22/world/meast/syria-conflict/index.html?hpt=imi_c2|website=CNN|accessdate=15 October 2014}} International organizations have accused forces on all sides of severe human rights violations, with [[List of massacres during the Syrian Civil War|many massacres occurring]].{{cite web|last1=Abdelaziz|first1=Salma|title=Syrian rebels blame 'heinous' executions on 'extremists'|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2012/11/02/world/meast/syria-civil-war/index.html|website=CNN|accessdate=15 October 2014}}{{cite news |title=UN human rights probe panel reports continuing 'gross' violations in Syria |url=http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=42079 |date=24 May 2012 |publisher=United Nations |accessdate=12 September 2013}} [[Chemical weapon]]s have been [[Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war|used many times during the conflict]] as well.{{cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/27/syria-isis-war-crimes-united-nations-un|title=Syria and Isis committing war crimes, says UN|work=the Guardian}}{{cite web|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/16/un-commission-syria_n_5828414.html|title=UN Commission: ISIS Not The Sole Agent Of Death And Destruction In Syria|date=16 September 2014|work=The Huffington Post|accessdate=14 October 2014}} In addition, tens of thousands of protesters and activists have been imprisoned and there are reports of [[Use of torture since 1948#Syria|torture]] in state prisons.{{cite web|url=http://news.yahoo.com/bashar-al-assad-s-syrian-torture-chambers-205323124.html?soc_src=mediacontentstory|title=inside bashar assads torture chambers|work=yahoo news|accessdate=15 October 2014}} The severity of the humanitarian disaster in Syria has been outlined by the UN and many international organizations. More than 6.5 million Syrians have been displaced, more than 3 million Syrians have fled the country to countries such as [[Lebanon]], [[Jordan]], [[Turkey]], [[Egypt]], and [[Iraq]] and become [[Refugees of the Syrian Civil War|refugees]], and millions more have been left in poor living conditions with shortages of food and drinking water. At the end of August 2014, 35,000 refugees were awaiting registration, while estimates of several hundred thousand more were not included in official figures as they were unregistered.{{cite news|title=Syrian refugees biggest humanitarian crisis|url=http://www.middleeaststar.com/index.php/sid/225225113|date=28 August 2014|accessdate=30 August 2014|work=Middle East Star}} ==Background== {{main|Modern history of Syria}} ===Assad government=== {{main|Politics of Syria#Government administration}} Syria became an independent republic in 1946, although democratic rule was ended by a coup in March 1949, followed by two more coups that same year.{{cite journal |author=Douglas Little|year=1990 |title=Cold War and Covert Action: The United States and Syria, 1945–1958. |journal=Middle East Journal |volume=44 |issue=1|url=http://www.jstor.org/pss/4328056}}{{cite web|url=http://coat.ncf.ca/our_magazine/links/issue51/articles/51_12-13.pdf |title=1949–1958, Syria: Early Experiments in Cover Action, Douglas Little, Professor, Department of History, Clark University |format=PDF}} A popular [[1954 Syrian coup d'état|uprising]] against military rule in 1954 saw the army transfer power to civilians; from 1958 to 1961 a [[United Arab Republic|brief union with Egypt]] replaced Syria's parliamentary system with a highly centralized presidential regime.{{cite news|title=Syria Profile|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703995|accessdate=13 September 2013|publisher=BBC|date=13 September 2013}} The [[Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region|Ba'ath Syrian Regional Branch]] government came to power in 1963 after [[1963 Syrian coup d'état|a successful coup d'état]]. In 1966, [[1966 Syrian coup d'état|another coup]] overthrew the traditional leaders of the party, [[Michel Aflaq]] and [[Salah al-Din al-Bitar]].{{cite news |last=Wilson |first=Scott |url=http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2014875394_syria26.html |title=Syria escalates attacks against demonstrators |work=The Seattle Times |date=25 April 2011}} General [[Hafez al-Assad]], the [[Ministry of Defense (Syria)|Minister of Defense]], seized power in a "[[1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution|corrective revolution]]" in November 1970, becoming [[Prime Minister of Syria|Prime Minister]]. In March 1971, Assad declared himself [[President of Syria|President]], a position that he held until his death in 2000. Since then, the secular Syrian Regional Branch has remained the dominant political authority in what is virtually a [[single-party state]] in Syria; Syrian citizens may only approve the President by [[referendum]] and – until the government-controlled multi-party [[Syrian parliamentary election, 2012|2012 parliamentary election]] – could not vote in multi-party elections for the legislature.{{cite news |url=http://www.npr.org/2011/04/13/135383023/protests-in-syria-pose-challenges-for-the-u-s |title=Protests in Syria Pose Challenges for the U.S |publisher=NPR}} Bashar al-Assad, the President of Syria and [[Asma al-Assad]], his wife – who is a British-born and British-educated Sunni Muslim,{{cite news|last=Golovnina |first=Maria |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/19/us-syria-asma-idUSBRE82I0MB20120319 |title=Asma al Assad, a "desert rose" crushed by Syria's strife|agency=Reuters |date=19 March 2012 |accessdate=8 August 2013}} initially inspired hopes for democratic and state reforms and a "[[Damascus Spring]]" of intense social and political debate took place between July 2000 and August 2001.{{cite journal |title=No Room to Breathe: State Repression of Human Rights Activism in Syria |publisher=Human Rights Watch |date=October 2007 |volume=19 |issue=6 |pages=8–13 |url=http://www.hrw.org/en/node/10646/section/4}} The period was characterized by the emergence of numerous political forums or [[Salon (gathering)|salons]], where groups of like-minded people met in private houses to debate political and social issues. Political activists such as [[Riad Seif]], [[Haitham al-Maleh]], [[Kamal al-Labwani]], [[Riyad al-Turk]] and [[Aref Dalila]] were important in mobilizing the movement.{{cite web illumanti|title=Syria Smothering Freedom of Expression: the detention of peaceful critics |url=http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/MDE24/007/2002/en/ee9fa6f2-d870-11dd-9df8-936c90684588/mde240072002en.html |publisher=Amnesty International |accessdate=5 July 2011}} The most famous of the forums were the [[Riad Seif Forum]] and the [[Jamal al-Atassi]] Forum. The Damascus Spring largely ended in August 2001 with the arrest and imprisonment of ten leading activists who had called for democratic elections and a campaign of civil disobedience.{{cite book |last=George |first=Alan |title=Syria:Neither Bread nor Freedom |year=2003 |publisher=Zed Books |location=New York, NY |isbn=1-84277-213-9 |pages=56–58 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=dFdbVVcKsSIC }} From 2001 even reformists in Parliament had begun to criticize the legacy of stagnation since the rule of former President Hafez al-Assad; Bashar al-Assad has talked about reform but carried out very little, and he has failed to deliver on promised reforms since 2000, analysts say.{{Cite news|title=Syrian Protesters Clash With Security Forces| url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/02/world/middleeast/02syria.html|date=1 April 2011|accessdate=19 December 2013|newspaper=New York Times|author=Liam Stack|author2=J. David Goodman}} ===Demographics=== {{Main|Demographics of Syria}} {{Pie chart |caption = Ethno-religious composition of people of Syria (% of 22,538,256){{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sy.html|title=The World Factbook - Syria|publisher=|accessdate=2 October 2014}}{{cite journal |url=http://www.understandingwar.org/sites/default/files/Struggle_For_Syria.pdf |title=The Struggle for Syria in 2011 |author=Holliday, Joseph |journal=Institute for the Study of War |date=December 2011}} |thumb = right |label1 = [[Sunni]] |value1 = 54 |label2 = [[Alawite]] |value2 = 16 |color2 = #AA4643 |label3 = [[Kurds in Syria|Kurd]]-[[Sunni]] |value3 = 12 |color3 = #89A54E |label4 = [[Christian]] |value4 = 11 |color4 = #71588F |label5 = [[Druze]] |value5 = 4 |color5 = #DB843D |label6 = [[Islam in Syria#Ismailis|Ismaeli]] |value6 = 2 |color6 = #93A9CF |label7 = [[Syrian Turkmen|Turkmen]]-Sunni, [[Circassians in Syria|Circassian]]-Sunni, and others |value7 = 1 |color7 = #D19392 }} The [[Assad family]] comes from the minority [[Alawi]]te religious group, an offshoot of [[Shia Islam|Shi'ite Islam]] that comprises an estimated 12 percent of the total [[Syrian people|Syrian]] population.{{cite news |last=Heneghan |first=Tom |date= 3 December 2011 |title=Syria's Alawites are secretive, unorthodox sect |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/23/us-syria-religion-alawites-idUSTRE7BM1J220111223 |agency=Reuters |accessdate=8 August 2013}} It has maintained tight control on Syria's security services,{{cite web|url=http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/uploads/Maps/Syria-Regime-Chart-20130826_2 |title=washingtoninstitutemap |accessdate=2014-05-21}} generating resentment among some [[Sunni Muslim]]s,{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/25/world/middleeast/25assad.html |title=Syrian Crisis Tests the Mettle of Its Autocratic Ruler |date=24 April 2011 |work=The New York Times |first=Robert F. |last=Worth |accessdate=10 August 2013 }} a religious group that makes up about 74% percent of Syria's population (inclusive of the [[Syrian Kurds|Kurdish minority]] of 14% and [[Turks in Syria|Turkish minority]] of 1-3%; the remaining are [[Alawites]] 12%, [[Christianity in Syria|Christian]] 10%, [[Druze]] 3%, [[Ismaili]] Shi'a 2%). Ethnic minority [[Syrian Kurds]] have also protested and complained over ethnic discrimination and denial of their cultural and language rights.{{cite news |url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/07/syra-kurds-leader-idUSLDE73613X20110407 |title=Syria Kurd leader vows to keep up democracy struggle |agency=Reuters| date=7 April 2011 |accessdate=10 August 2013}}{{cite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/mar/27/report-12-killed-syrian-port-city |title=US will not intervene in Syria as it has in Libya, says Hillary Clinton |work=The Guardian |date=27 March 2011 |location=London}} Assad's younger brother [[Maher al-Assad]] commands the [[Syrian Army|army]]'s elite [[4th Armoured Division (Syria)|Fourth Armoured Division]], and his brother-in-law, [[Assef Shawkat]], was the deputy minister of defense until the latter's assassination in the [[18 July 2012 Damascus bombing]]. ===Socio-economics=== Discontent against the government was strongest in Syria's poorer areas, predominantly among conservative Sunnis.{{cite news|title=Rebels in Syria's largest city of Aleppo mostly poor, pious and from rural backgrounds|url=http://www.foxnews.com/world/2012/10/16/rebels-in-syria-largest-city-aleppo-mostly-poor-pious-and-from-rural/|accessdate=28 January 2013|publisher=Fox News Channel|agency=Associated Press|date=16 October 2012}} These included cities with high poverty rates, such as [[Daraa]] and [[Homs]], rural areas hit hard by a drought in early 2011, and the poorer districts of large cities. Socio-economic inequality increased significantly after free market policies were initiated by Hafez al-Assad in his later years, and accelerated after Bashar al-Assad came to power. With an emphasis on the [[service sector]], these policies benefited a minority of the nation's population, mostly people who had connections with the government, and members of the Sunni merchant class of Damascus and Aleppo. By 2011, Syria was facing a deterioration in the national standard of living and steep rises in the prices of commodities.{{cite news|last=Saleeby|first=Suzanne|title=Sowing the Seeds of Dissent: Economic Grievances and the Syrian Social Contract's Unraveling|url=http://www.jadaliyya.com/pages/index/4383/sowing-the-seeds-of-dissent_economic-grievances-an|newspaper=Jadaliyya|date=16 February 2012}} The country also faced particularly high youth unemployment rates.{{cite web |url=http://journalistsresource.org/studies/government/international/youth-exclusion-in-syria-economic/ |title=Youth Exclusion in Syria: Social, Economic, and Institutional Dimensions |publisher=Journalist's Resource |accessdate=11 August 2012}} ===Human rights=== {{Main|Human rights in Syria}} The state of human rights in Syria has long been the subject of harsh criticism from global organizations.[http://www.hrw.org/world-report-2010 "World Report 2010 Human Rights Watch World Report 2010"], p. 555. The country was under [[state of emergency|emergency rule]] from 1963 until 2011, banning public gatherings of more than five people,{{cite news |title=Syria's Assad vows to lift emergency law by next week|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/04/16/us-syria-idUSTRE72N2MC20110416 |date=16 April 2011 |accessdate=1 January 2014 |agency=Reuters}} and effectively granting security forces sweeping powers of arrest and detention.{{cite web |url=http://report2009.amnesty.org/en/regions/middle-east-north-africa/syria |publisher=Amnesty International |year=2009 |title=Syria |accessdate=1 February 2012}} Bashar al-Assad is widely regarded as having been unsuccessful in implementing democratic change, with a 2010 report from [[Human Rights Watch]] stating that he had failed to substantially improve the state of human rights since taking power, although some minor aspects had seen improvement.{{cite news |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/16/syrian-human-rights-unchanged-assad |work=The Guardian |first=Ian |last=Black |title=Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says |date=16 July 2010 |location=London}} In December 2010, mass anti-government protests began in Tunisia and later spread across other parts of the [[Arab world]], including [[Syria]]. By February 2011, revolutions occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, while Libya began to experience [[2011 Libyan Civil War|its own civil war]]. Numerous other Arab countries also faced protests, with some attempting to calm the masses by making concessions and governmental changes. The uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt are supposed to have inspired the mid-March 2011 protests in Syria.{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13662296 |title=Syria unrest: 'Deadly clashes' in Jisr al-Shughour |publisher=BBC |date=5 June 2011|accessdate=17 June 2014}} Rights of [[freedom of expression|free expression]], [[freedom of association|association]] and [[freedom of assembly|assembly]] were strictly controlled in Syria even before the uprising. The authorities harass and imprison [[human rights defender|human rights activists]] and other critics of the government, who are often indefinitely detained and [[torture]]d in poor prison conditions.[http://books.google.com/?id=OZ3a4M_oZccC Human Rights Watch World Report 2005 Events of 2004], [[Human Rights Watch]] 2005. ISBN 1-56432-331-5. Women and [[ethnic minority|ethnic minorities]] have faced discrimination in the public sector. Thousands of [[Kurds in Syria|Syrian Kurds]] were denied citizenship in 1962 and their descendants continued to be labeled as "foreigners".{{cite news |url=http://articles.cnn.com/2011-04-07/world/syria.kurdish.citizenship_1_kurdish-region-kurdish-identity-stateless-kurds|title=Stateless Kurds in Syria granted citizenship |publisher=CNN |date=7 April 2011 |accessdate=13 November 2011}} A number of riots in 2004 prompted increased tension in Syria's Kurdish areas,{{cite journal |last=Brandon |first=James |title=The PKK and Syria's Kurds |url=http://www.jamestown.org/programs/gta/single/?tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=1014&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=182&no_cache=1 |journal=Terrorism Monitor |publisher=The Jamestown Foundation|location=Washington, DC |volume=5 |issue=3 |date=21 February 2007 |accessdate=1 February 2012}}{{cite web |url=http://www.mideastweb.org/log/archives/00000231.htm |title=Kurdish agony – the forgotten massacre of Qamishlo |last=Isseroff |first=Ami |work=MideastWeb |date=24 March 2004 |accessdate=16 February 2012}} and there have been occasional clashes between Kurdish protesters and security forces ever since. ==Course of events== {{main|Syrian Civil War Course of events}} ===Protests, civil uprising, and defections (January 2011 – July 2011)=== {{main|Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War}} ===Protests and armed insurgency (July 2011 – October 2011)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (May–August 2011)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (September–December 2011)}} {{see also|List of Syrian defectors}} ===Escalation (November 2011 – March 2012)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (September–December 2011)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (January–April 2012)}} {{See also|Siege of Homs|2012 Homs offensive|Battle of Idlib (2012)}} ===Ceasefire attempt (April 2012 – May 2012)=== {{main|Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (January–April 2012)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (May–August 2012)}} ===Renewed fighting (June 2012 – July 2012)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (May–August 2012)}} ===Battles of Damascus and Aleppo (July 2012 – October 2012)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (May–August 2012)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (September–December 2012)|Battle of Damascus (2012)|Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)|Rif Dimashq offensive (August–October 2012)}} ===Rebel offensives (November 2012 – April 2013)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (September–December 2012)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (January–April 2013)}} {{further|Battle of Aleppo (2012–present)|Rif Dimashq offensive (November 2012–February 2013)|2012 Hama offensive|Damascus offensive (2013)|Battle of Shadadeh|Battle of Raqqa}} ===Government and Hezbollah offensives (April 2013 – June 2013)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (January–April 2013)|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (from May 2013)}} {{further|Al-Qusayr offensive|Battle of al-Qusayr (2013)}} ===Continued fighting (July 2013 – October 2013)=== {{main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (from May 2013)}} {{further|2013 Syrian Kurdish–Islamist conflict|2013 Ghouta attacks}} === Government and Hezbollah offensives (October 2013 – December 2013)=== {{further|Aleppo offensive (October–December 2013)|Battle of Qalamoun}} ===Fighting between ISIL and other rebel groups (January 2014 – March 2014)=== {{main|Syrian opposition–Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant conflict}} ===Continued government and Hezbollah offensive (March 2014)=== {{main|Syrian Civil War Course of events#Continued government and Hezbollah offensive (March 2014))}} ===Continued fighting (March 2014 – May 2014)=== {{main|Syrian Civil War Course of events#Continued fighting (March 2014 – May 2014)}} ===Presidential election (June 2014)=== {{Main|Syrian presidential election, 2014}} ===ISIL offensive and continued fighting (June 2014 – August 2014)=== {{main|Syrian Civil War Course of events#ISIL offensive and continued fighting (June 2014 – August 2014)}} {{See also|Timeline of Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant events in 2014}} ===ISIL offensives and U.S. airstrikes (August 2014 – present)=== {{Main|Timeline of the Syrian Civil War (August 2014–present)|American-led intervention in Syria}} ==Weaponry and tactics== {{see also|Equipment of the Syrian Army|List of military equipment used by Syrian opposition forces}} ===Chemical weapons=== {{main|Syria and weapons of mass destruction|Use of chemical weapons in the Syrian civil war}} {{see also|Syria chemical weapons program}} [[File:State Department map of Gouta chemical attack.svg|thumb|Map of the August 2013 Ghouta chemical attacks.]] [[United Nations Mission to Investigate Alleged Uses of Chemical Weapons in the Syrian Arab Republic|A UN fact-finding mission]] was requested by member states to investigate 16 alleged chemical weapons attacks. Seven of them have been investigated (nine were dropped for lack of "sufficient or credible information") and in four cases the UN inspectors confirmed use of [[sarin]] gas. The reports, however, did not blame any party of using chemical weapons.{{cite web|url=http://www.al-bab.com/blog/2013/december/sarin-in-syria.htm |title=Sarin in Syria: UN inspectors struggle to verify competing claims |publisher=Al-bab.com |accessdate=2014-03-20}} Many countries, including the United States and the European Union have accused the Syrian government of conducting several chemical attacks, the most serious of them being the [[2013 Ghouta attacks]]. Following this incident and international pressure, the [[destruction of Syria's chemical weapons]] began. Chemical weapons investigators concluded "with a high degree of confidence" that chlorine gas was used as a weapon against civilians in three Syrian villages in 2014, affecting between 350 and 500 people and killing 13. The report by [[The OPCW Fact-Finding Mission in Syria|The OPCW Fact-Finding Mission]] didn't blame either side but said interviewees claimed either seeing or hearing a helicopter overhead at the time of the incident.{{cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jan/07/syria-chlorine-chemical-weapons-attacks-opcw?CMP=share_btn_tw|title=Investigators confident that chlorine gas was used as weapon in Syria|work=The Guardian}}{{cite web|url=http://photos.state.gov/libraries/netherlands/328666/pdfs/THIRDREPORTOFTHEOPCWFACTFINDINGMISSIONINSYRIA.pdf|title=THIRD REPORT OF THE OPCW FACT-FINDING MISSION IN SYRIA|publisher=[[OPCW]]|date=18 December 2014}} ===Cluster bombs=== The Syrian army began using [[cluster bomb]]s in September 2012. Steve Goose, director of the Arms division at Human Rights Watch said "Syria is expanding its relentless use of cluster munitions, a banned weapon, and civilians are paying the price with their lives and limbs," "The initial toll is only the beginning because cluster munitions often leave unexploded bomblets that kill and maim long afterward."{{cite web|url=http://www.hrw.org/news/2013/03/16/syria-mounting-casualties-cluster-munitions |title=Syria: Mounting Casualties from Cluster Munitions|publisher=Human Rights Watch |date=16 March 2013}} ===Scud missile attacks=== In December 2012, the Syrian government began using [[Scud]] missiles on rebel-held towns, primarily targeting Aleppo.{{cite news|author=Saad, Waida; Rick, Gladstone|title=Scud Missile Attack Reported in Aleppo|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/23/world/middleeast/scud-missile-aleppo.html|newspaper=The New York Times|date=22 February 2013|accessdate=8 August 2013}} On 19 February, four Scud missiles were fired, three landed in Aleppo city and one on [[Tell Rifaat]] town, Aleppo governorate. Between December and February, at least 40 Scud missile landings were reported.{{cite web|author=Sevil Küçükkoşum |url=http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/syria-fired-more-than-40-scud-missiles-in-two-months.aspx?pageID=238&nid=41564 |title=Syria fired more than 40 Scud missiles in two months |work=Hürriyet Daily News}} Altogether, Scud missiles killed 141 people in the month of February.{{cite news|last=Sly|first=Liz|title=Ballistic missile strikes on Aleppo signal new escalation in Syria war|url=http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2013-02-26/world/37310124_1_ballistic-missiles-scuds-aleppo|newspaper=The Washington Post|date=26 February 2013}} The United States condemned the Scud missile attacks.{{cite web|url=http://www.nbcnews.com/id/50927099/ns/world_news-mideast_n_africa/t/us-condemns-scud-attack-syria-invites-opposition-talks/#.UX05nLWUT6c |title=U.S. condemns Scud attack in Syria, invites opposition for talks|publisher=NBC News |date=24 February 2013}}{{Dead link|date=May 2014}} On 1 March, a Scud missile landed in Iraq. It is believed that the intention was to hit the Deir Ezzor governorate.{{cite news|last=Weaver|first=Matthew|title=Syria crisis: Scud missile lands in Iraq |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/middle-east-live/2013/mar/01/syria-crisis-kerry-visits-turkey-live|newspaper=The Guardian|date=1 March 2013|location=London}} On 29 March, a Scud missile landed on [[Huraytan|Hretan]], Aleppo, killing 20 and injuring 50.{{cite news|title=20 dead in Scud missile attack in Syria, activists say|url=http://articles.latimes.com/2013/mar/29/world/la-fg-wn-syria-scud-missile-20130329|newspaper=Los Angeles Times|date=29 March 2013|first1=Raja|last1=Abdulrahim|first2=Lava|last2=Selo}} On 28 April, a Scud missile landed on Tell Rifaat, killing four, two of them women and two of them children, SOHR reported.{{cite web|url=http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2013/04/28/Missile-fired-on-Syria-town-kills-4-civilians-.html |title=NGO: Missile fired on Syria town kills 4 civilians|publisher=Al Arabiya|date=28 April 2013}} On 3 June, a surface-to-surface missile, not confirmed as a Scud, hit the village of [[Kafr Hamrah]] around midnight killing 26 people including six women and eight children according to [[SOHR]].{{cite web|url=http://www.france24.com/en/20130603-syrian-missile-kills-26-village-near-aleppo |title=Syrian missile kills 26 in village near Aleppo 3 June 2013 |publisher=France 24 |date=6 December 2012}}{{Dead link|date=May 2014}} ===Suicide bombings=== {{Further|List of bombings during the Syrian Civil War}} Rebel suicide bombings [[December 2011 Damascus bombings|began in December 2011]]; the Al-Nusra Front has claimed responsibility for 57 out of 70 similar attacks through April 2013.{{cite web|url=http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2013/04/suicide_bomber_kills_77.php|title=Suicide bomber kills 16 in Syrian capital|date=8 April 2013}} The bombings have claimed numerous civilian casualties. It has been reported that suicide bombings have led to a drop in support for some rebel groups.{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/09/world/middleeast/syria-explosion-damascus.html|title=Wider Use of Car Bombs Angers Both Sides in Syrian Conflict|date=8 April 2013|accessdate=28 April 2013|newspaper=The New York Times|first=Anne|last=Barnard}} One particular suicide bombing in a mainly Alawite area of Homs left 47 children killed on 1 October 2014.{{cite news|url=http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/syria-public-protests-after-suicide-bomber-kills-47-children-school-1468314 |title=Syria: Public Protests after Suicide Bomber Kills 47 Children in a School |date=2 October 2014 |newspaper= [[International Business Times]]}} Since late 2014, forces loyal to Assad have formed a "martyrdom-seeking platoon", dubbing themselves the commandos of the "Mountain Battalion".{{cite news|url=http://www.memritv.org/clip/en/4698.htm | title= #4698 - Syrian Army Establishes Platoon of Suicide Bombers | publisher= The Middle East Media Research Institute |date= December 30, 2014 |accessdate=January 8, 2015}}{{cite news|url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/video-syrian-army-forms-suicide-bomber-platoon/ | title= Syrian army forms suicide bomber platoon |publisher= The Times of Israel | first1= Itamar | last1=Sharon | first2= | last2= |date= January 7, 2015 |accessdate=January 8, 2015}} ===Barrel bombs=== {{main|Barrel bomb}} A barrel bomb is a type of [[improvised explosive device]] used by the Syrian Air Force. Typically, a barrel is filled with a large amount of TNT, and possibly [[Fragmentation (weaponry)|shrapnel]] (such as nails) and oil, and dropped from a helicopter. The resulting detonation can be devastating.{{cite web|url=http://www.smh.com.au/world/syrias-deadly-barrel-bombs-20120901-2573t.html |title=Syria's deadly barrel bombs |publisher=Smh.com.au |date=2012-09-02 |accessdate=2014-05-21}}{{cite web|last=McElroy |first=Damien |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9512719/Syrian-regime-deploys-deadly-new-weapons-on-rebels.html |title=Syrian regime deploys deadly new weapons on rebels |publisher=Telegraph.co.uk |accessdate=2014-05-21}}{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-25466541|title=BBC News - Syria conflict: Barrel bombs show brutality of war|work=BBC News}}{{cite web|url=https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/newsyrialatestnews/526653-france-says-syria-air-strikes-amount-to-war-crimes|title=France says Syria air strikes amount to "war crimes"|date=20 December 2013|publisher=|accessdate=26 February 2015}} ===Improvised mortar bombs=== SOHR estimated that rebel forces, using improvised mortar bombs made of cooking gas canisters, caused 311 civilian deaths by inaccurate bombing in second half of 2014.{{cite news|url=http://mobile.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSKBN0JQ17I20141212?irpc=932|title=Syrian rebel 'hell cannons' kill 300 civilians: monitoring group|date=2014-12-12|accessdate=2014-12-16}} ===Thermobaric and incendiary weapons=== [[Thermobaric weapons]], also known as "fuel-air bombs," have been used by the government side during the Syrian civil war. Since 2012, rebels have said that the Syrian Air Force (government forces) is using thermobaric weapons against residential areas occupied by the rebel fighters, such as during the [[Battle of Aleppo (2012–13)|Battle of Aleppo]] and also in [[Kafr Batna]].[http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4266902,00.html Syria rebels say Assad using 'mass-killing weapons' in Aleppo – Israel News, Ynetnews]. Ynetnews.com (20 June 1995).[http://www.firstpost.com/topic/place/syria-dropping-thermobaric-bombs-on-residential-areas-in-syria-nov-video-cdd0LNnTD88-15-1.html Dropping Thermobaric Bombs on Residential Areas in Syria_ 5 Nov.. 2012]. Firstpost.com. A panel of United Nations human rights investigators reported that the Syrian government used thermobaric bombs against the strategic town of Qusayr in March 2013.{{cite news|last=Cumming-Bruce|first=Nick|title=U.N. Panel Reports Increasing Brutality by Both Sides in Syria|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/05/world/middleeast/un-panel-reports-increasing-brutality-by-both-sides-in-syria.html|newspaper=The New York Times|date=4 June 2013}} In August 2013, the BBC reported on the use of napalm-like incendiary bombs on a school in northern Syria.{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-23892594|title=BBC News - Syria crisis: Incendiary bomb victims 'like the walking dead'|work=BBC News}}{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-24288698|title=BBC News - Syria: Agony of victims of 'napalm-like' school bombing|work=BBC News}} ==Belligerents== {{main|List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War}} ===Syrian government and affiliated parties=== ====Syrian Army==== {{main|Syrian Army}} [[File:Azaz, Syria.jpg|thumb|Two destroyed Syrian Army tanks in Azaz, August 2012]] Before the uprising and war broke out, the force of the Syrian Arab Army was estimated at 325,000 regular troops, of which 220,000 were 'army troops' and the rest in the navy, air force and air defenses. There were also approximately 280,000–300,000 reservists. Since June 2011, defections of soldiers have been reported. By July 2012, the [[Syrian Observatory for Human Rights]] estimated that tens of thousands of soldiers have defected, and a Turkish official estimated that 60,000 soldiers have defected. According to Western experts{{who|date=December 2014}}, these defections have not as yet decreased the strength of the Syrian military, since the defecting soldiers were mainly [[Sunni Islam|Sunnis]] without access to vital command and control in the army.{{citation needed|date=December 2014}} ====National Defense Force==== {{main|National Defence Force (Syria)}} The Syrian NDF was formed out of pro-government militias. They receive their salaries, and their military equipment from the government,{{cite news|title=Insight: Battered by war, Syrian army creates its own replacement|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/21/us-syria-crisis-paramilitary-insight-idUSBRE93K02R20130421|accessdate=29 May 2013|newspaper=Reuters|date=21 April 2013}}{{cite news |title=Rise of the militias |author=Michael Weiss |url=https://now.mmedia.me/lb/en/commentaryanalysis/rise-of-the-militias |newspaper=NOW. |date=17 May 2013 |accessdate=}} and numbers around 100,000.{{cite news|title=Syria's Alawite Force Turned Tide for Assad|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323997004578639903412487708.html|publisher=Wall Street Journal|date=26 August 2013|accessdate=2 September 2013}}{{cite news |title=Syria’s civil war: The regime digs in|url=http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21579494-president-bashar-assad-and-his-forces-have-won-new-lease-life-regime-digs |newspaper=The Economist |date=15 June 2013 |accessdate= }} The force acts in an infantry role, directly fighting against rebels on the ground and running counter-insurgency operations in coordination with the army, which provides them logistical and artillery support. The force has a 500-strong women's wing called "''Lionesses of National Defense''" which operates checkpoints.{{cite news|title=Using Women to Win in Syria|url=http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/tr/originals/2013/09/women-fighters-syria-rebels-regime.html|author=Adam Heffez|publisher=[[Al-Monitor]] (Eylül)|date=28 November 2013|accessdate=28 November 2013}} NDF soldiers are allowed to take [[Looting|loot]] from battlefields, which can then be sold for extra money. ====Shabiha==== {{main|Shabiha}} The ''Shabiha'' are pro-government militias. Since the uprising, the Syrian government has frequently used ''shabiha'' to break up protests and enforce laws in restive neighborhoods.{{cite web|last=Asher|first=Berman|title=Criminalization of the Syrian Conflict|url=http://www.understandingwar.org/article/criminalization-syrian-conflict|work=Institute for the Study of War|accessdate=27 October 2012}} As the protests escalated into an armed conflict, the opposition started using the term ''shabiha'' to describe any civilian Assad supporter taking part in the government's crackdown on the uprising.[http://www.lb.boell.org/downloads/Yassin_al-Haj_Saleh-The_Syrian_Shabiha_and_Their_State.pdf The Syrian Shabiha and Their State]{{Dead link|date=May 2014}}. (PDF). The opposition blames the ''shabiha'' for the many violent excesses committed against anti-government protesters and opposition sympathizers, as well as looting and destruction.{{cite web |url=http://harpers.org/archive/2011/06/hbc-90008111 |title=The Two Homs |last=Adorno |first=Esther |date=8 June 2011 |work=Harper's Magazine |accessdate=22 September 2012}}{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/15/us-syria-idUSTRE78D3HV20110915|title=Armored Syrian forces storm towns near Turkey border|first=Khaled Yacoub|last=Oweis|agency=Reuters|date=15 September 2011|accessdate=1 February 2012|location=Amman}} In December 2012, the ''shabiha'' were designated a terrorist organization by the United States.{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2012/12/11/world/meast/syria-civil-war/index.html |title=U.S. blacklists al-Nusra Front fighters in Syria |publisher=CNN |accessdate=17 December 2012 |date=12 December 2012}} [[Bassel al-Assad]] is reported to have created the ''shabiha'' in the 1980s for government use in times of crisis.{{cite web|url=http://www.saudigazette.com.sa/index.cfm?method=home.regcon&contentID=20120515124158 |title=Bashar Al-Assad's transformation |work=Saudi Gazette |date=15 May 2012 |accessdate=6 July 2012}} ''Shabiha'' have been described as "a notorious Alawite paramilitary, who are accused of acting as unofficial enforcers for Assad's regime";{{cite news|url=http://www.tnr.com/article/world/93286/syria-assad-shabbiha-sectarianism|title=Assad's Devious, Cruel Plan to Stay in Power By Dividing Syria—And Why It's Working|first=Oliver|last=Holmes |date=15 August 2011|work=TNR}} "gunmen loyal to Assad",{{cite news|agency=Reuters|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/04/us-syria-assad-alawites-idUSTRE7433X620110504|title=Analysis: Assad retrenches into Alawite power base|date=4 May 2011}} and, according to the Qatar-based Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies, "semi-criminal gangs {{sic|comprised |hide=y|of}} thugs close to the regime". Despite the group's image as an Alawite militia, some ''shabiha'' operating in Aleppo have been reported to be Sunnis.{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/03/us-syria-aleppo-idUSTRE81213720120203 |title=Uprising finally hits Syria's "Silk Road" city |agency=Reuters |date=3 February 2012 |accessdate=18 August 2012|first=Khaled Yacoub|last=Oweis}} In 2012, the Assad government created a more organized official militia known as the [[Jaysh al-Sha'bi]], allegedly with help from Iran and Hezbollah. As with the ''shabiha'', the vast majority of Jaysh al-Sha'bi members are Alawite and Shi'ite volunteers.[http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/feb/12/iran-hezbollah-milita-networks-syria "Iran and Hezbollah build militia networks in Syria, officials say"]. ''[[The Guardian]]''. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013.[http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/02/19/3242833/pro-assad-militia-now-key-to-syrian.html "Pro-Assad militia now key to Syrian government’s war strategy"]. ''[[The Miami Herald]]''. 19 February 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2013 ====Hezbollah==== {{main|Hezbollah}} General Secretary [[Hassan Nasrallah]] denied Hezbollah had been fighting on behalf of the Syrian government, stating in a 12 October 2012 speech that "right from the start the Syrian opposition has been telling the media that Hezbollah sent 3,000 fighters to Syria, which we have denied".{{cite web|url=http://www.arabamericannews.com/news/index.php?mod=article&cat=ArabWorld&article=6018 |title=Drone flight over Israel: Nasrallah’s latest surprise |publisher=Arab-American News}} However, according to the Lebanese ''[[The Daily Star (Lebanon)|Daily Star]]'' newspaper, Nasrallah said in the same speech that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah fighters have died in Syria doing their "jihadist duties".{{cite news|last=Hirst|first=David|title=Hezbollah uses its military power in a contradictory manner|url=http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Opinion/Commentary/2012/Oct-23/192380-hezbollah-uses-its-military-power-in-a-contradictory-manner.ashx#axzz2AJrVn2Ik|newspaper=The Daily Star|location=Beirut|date=23 October 2012}} In 2012, Hezbollah fighters crossed the border from Lebanon and took over eight villages in the [[Al-Qusayr District]] of Syria.[http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2013/02/17/266843.html "Hezbollah fighters, Syrian rebels killed in border fighting"]. [[Al Arabiya]], 17 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013. The former secretary general of Hezbollah, Sheikh [[Subhi al-Tufayli]], confirmed in February 2013 that Hezbollah was fighting for the Syrian army.{{cite web|url=http://www.alarabiya.net/articles/2013/02/26/268422.html |title=Hezbollah fighters killed in Syria will 'go to hell,' says former leader |publisher=Al Arabiya|date=26 February 2013}} On 12 May, Hezbollah, with the Syrian army, attempted to retake part of [[Al-Qusayr, Syria|Qusayr]].{{cite news | title=Hezbollah Aids Syrian Military in a Key Battle | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/20/world/middleeast/syrian-army-moves-to-rebel-held-qusayr.html | date=19 May 2013 |work=The New York Times | author=Barnard, Anne; Saad, Hwaida}} By the end of the day, 60 percent of the city, including the municipal office building, were under pro-Assad forces. In Lebanon, there have been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas." As of 14 May, Hezbollah fighters were reported to be fighting alongside the Syrian army, particularly in the [[Homs Governorate]].{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/01/world/middleeast/nasrallah-warns-that-hezbollah-is-ready-to-come-to-syrias-aid.html| title=Leader of Hezbollah Warns It Is Ready to Come to Syria's Aid | work=The New York Times | date=30 April 2013 | accessdate=14 May 2013 | author=Anne Barnard, Hania Mourtada}} Hassan Nasrallah has called on Shiites and Hezbollah to protect the shrine of Sayida Zeinab. President Bashar al-Assad denied in May 2013 that there were foreign fighters, Arab or otherwise, fighting for the government in Syria.{{cite web|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/05/2013519124646578835.html |title=Syrian offensive on Qusayr deepens|publisher=Al Jazeera}} On 25 May, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah was fighting in the Syria against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon".{{cite news |url=http://news.yahoo.com/hezbollah-chief-says-group-fighting-syria-162721809.html | title=Hezbollah chief says group is fighting in Syria | agency=Associated Press | date=25 May 2013 | accessdate=25 May 2013 | author=Mroue, Bassem}} He confirmed that Hezbollah was fighting in the strategic Syrian town of Qusayr on the same side as [[Assad]]'s forces. In the televised address, he said, "If Syria falls in the hands of America, Israel and the [[takfiris]], the people of our region will go into a dark period." According to independent analysts, by the beginning of 2014, approximately 500 Hezbollah fighters had died in the Syrian conflict.{{cite news|author=Stay informed today and every day |url=http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21592634-civil-war-neighbouring-syria-putting-ever-greater-strain-lebanons |title=Lebanon: Will it hold together? |publisher=Economist.com |date=2014-01-04 |accessdate=2014-05-21}} ====Iran==== {{main|Iranian support for Syria in the Syrian Civil War}} Since the start of the civil war, Iran has expressed its support for the Syrian government and has provided it with financial, technical, and military support, including training and some combat troops.{{cite news|url=http://www.economist.com/node/21547305 |title=The long road to Damascus|work=The Economist|accessdate=11 February 2012|date=11 February 2012}} [[Iran]] and [[Syria]] are [[Iran–Syria relations|close strategic allies]]. Iran sees the survival of the Syrian government as being crucial to its regional interests.[http://www.understandingwar.org/report/iranian-strategy-syria Iranian Strategy in Syria], [[Institute for the Study of War]], Executive Summary + Full report, May 2013[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iran/10654144/Iran-boosts-support-to-Syria.html Iran boosts support to Syria], telegraph, 21 Feb 2014 Iran's [[Supreme Leader of Iran|supreme leader]], [[Ali Khamenei]], was reported in September 2011 to be vocally in favor of the Syrian government.{{cite web|url=http://www.insideiran.org/featured/how-iran-keeps-assad-in-power-in-syria/ |title=How Iran Keeps Assad in Power in Syria |work=Inside Iran|date=5 September 2011 |accessdate=6 February 2012}} In the [[civil uprising phase of the Syrian civil war]], Iran provided Syria with technical support based on Iran's capabilities developed following the [[2009–2010 Iranian election protests]]. As the uprising developed into the [[Syrian civil war]], there were increasing reports of Iranian military support, and of Iranian training of NDF (National Defence Forces) both in Syria, and in Iran.BBC Newsnight, report on Iranian military advisor Hadari, 28 October 2013 'Iran's Secret Army' [http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b03hdf8f/Our_World_Irans_Secret_Army], {{YouTube|ZI_88ChjQtU}} Iranian security and intelligence services are advising and assisting the Syrian military to preserve Bashar al-Assad's hold on power.{{cite news|url= http://jcpa.org/article/iran-killing-senior-hizbullah-irgc-officials-israels-destruction|title= Iran: “Killing of Senior Hizbullah and IRGC Officials Will Hasten Israel’s Destruction”|publisher= Lt. Col. (ret.) Michael Segall, Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs (JCPA)|date=21 January 2015|accessdate=29 January 2015}} Those efforts include training, technical support, combat troops and arms shipments. By December 2013 Iran was thought to have approximately 10,000 operatives in Syria. Lebanese [[Hezbollah]] fighters backed by Tehran has taken direct combat roles since 2012.[http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/21/us-syria-crisis-iran-idUSBREA1K09U20140221 Iran boosts military support in Syria to bolster Assad], reuters, 21, Feb 2014 In the summer of 2013, Iran and Hezbollah provided important battlefield support for Assad, allowing it to make advances on the opposition. In 2014, coinciding with the [[Geneva II Conference on Syria|peace talks at Geneva II]], Iran has stepped up support for Syrian President Assad. Syrian Minister of Finance and Economy announced that the "Iranian government has given more than 15 billion dollars" to Syria.[http://www.syrianef.org/En/?p=3029 The Interim Finance Minister: 15 Billion Dollars Iranian Support to Assad]; syrianef; 24, January, 2014 [[Iranian Revolutionary Guards Corps]] [[Quds Force]] commander [[Qasem Suleimani]] is in charge of Syrian President Assad's security portfolio and has overseen the arming and training of thousands of pro-government Shi'ite fighters.{{cite web|last=Weiss|first=Michael|url=http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2014/06/23/iran_is_funding_isis_syria_iraq_proxy_war|title=Trust Iran Only as Far as You Can Throw It|work=Foreign Policy|date=2014-06-23|accessdate=2014-08-11}}{{cite web|last=Filkins|first=Dexter|url=http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2013/09/30/the-shadow-commander?currentPage=all|title=The Shadow Commander|publisher=''[[The New Yorker]]''|date=2013-09-30|accessdate=2014-08-11}} ===Opposition parties=== [[File:Syrian National Coalition Members 11-11-2012 (Press photo).jpg|thumbnail|right|Coalition members in [[Doh]]. In center, president [[Moaz al-Khatib|al-Khatib]], along with VPs [[Riad Seif|Seif]] and [[Suheir Atassi|Atassi]], as well as all [[Syrian National Council|SNC]] chairmen [[Burhan Ghalioun|Ghalioun]], [[Abdulbaset Sieda|Sieda]] and [[George Sabra|Sabra]].]] ====Hizb ut-Tahrir==== {{main|Hizb ut-Tahrir}} Formed in 1953 at Jerusalem, Hizb ut-Tahrir soon expanded its work for the reestablishment of Islamic Caliphate in Syria. Hizb ut-Tahrir members were persecuted in Syria from the 1950s and up to the Syrian Uprising of 2011 in which they played a role of igniting and supporting the revolution and guiding rebels to unite under an Islamic Umbrella and a clear Islamic political agenda and vision. ====Syrian National Council==== {{main|Syrian National Council}} Formed on 23 August 2011, the National Council is a coalition of anti-government groups, based in Turkey. The National Council seeks the end of Bashar al-Assad's rule and the establishment of a modern, civil, democratic state. SNC has links with the [[Free Syrian Army]]. In November 2012, the council agreed to unify with several other opposition groups to form the [[National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces|Syrian National Coalition]]. The SNC has 22 out of 60 seats of the Syrian National Coalition.{{cite news|title=Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2012/11/11/syrian-opposition-deal/1697693/|newspaper=USA Today|date=11 November 2012}} ====Syrian National Coalition==== {{main|National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces}} On 11 November 2012 in Doha, the National Council and other opposition forces united as the [[National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces]].{{cite news|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/world/2012/11/11/syrian-opposition-deal/1697693/|title=Syrian opposition groups reach unity deal |work=USA Today |date=11 November 2012|accessdate=14 November 2012}} The following day, it was recognized as the legitimate government of Syria by numerous [[Arab States of the Persian Gulf|Persian Gulf]] states. Delegates to the Coalition's leadership council are to include women and representatives of religious and ethnic minorities, including Alawites. The military council will reportedly include the Free Syrian Army.{{cite news|author=Jim Muir |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20295857 |title=Syria crisis: Gulf states recognise Syria opposition |publisher=BBC|date=12 November 2012 |accessdate=14 November 2012}} The main aims of the National Coalition are replacing the [[Bashar al-Assad]] government and "its symbols and pillars of support", "dismantling the security services", unifying and supporting the Free Syrian Army, refusing dialogue and negotiation with the al-Assad government, and "holding accountable those responsible for killing Syrians, destroying [Syria], and displacing [Syrians]".{{cite web| title =The National Coalition of Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces| publisher =[[Local Coordination Committees of Syria]] | date =12 November 2012 |url=http://www.lccsyria.org/10488| accessdate =20 November 2012 |archiveurl=http://www.webcitation.org/6CIpu8And |archivedate=19 November 2012|deadurl=no }} =====Free Syrian Army===== {{main|Free Syrian Army}} [[File:FSA soldiers in truck moving.jpg|thumb|right|Free Syrian Army fighters being transported by pick up truck]] The formation of the Free Syrian Army (FSA) was announced on 29 July 2011 by a group of defecting [[Syrian Army]] officers. In a video, the men called upon Syrian soldiers and officers to defect to their ranks, and said the purpose of the Free Syrian Army was to defend civilian protesters from violence by the state, and "to bring this [Syrian] regime down".{{cite news |work=The World Tribune |url=http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2011/me_syria0973_08_03.asp |title=Defecting troops form 'Free Syrian Army', target Assad security forces |accessdate=13 November 2011 }} Many Syrian soldiers subsequently deserted to join the FSA.{{cite news |title=Free Syrian Army Partners with Opposition: What's Next for Syria? |first=Daniel |last=Torvov |url=http://www.ibtimes.co.in/articles/259730/20111202/syria-assad-free-syrian-army-sanctions.htm |work=International Business Times |date=2 December 2011 |accessdate=28 September 2012}}{{Dead link|date=May 2014}} By December 2011, the estimated number of soldiers who had defected to the FSA was ranging from 1,000 to over 25,000.{{cite news|last=Blomfield|first=Adam|title=Syrian rebels strike heart of Damascus|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/8902832/Syrian-rebels-strike-heart-of-Damascus.html|newspaper=The Telegraph|date=21 November 2011|location=London}} The FSA functions more as an umbrella organization than a traditional military chain of command, and was first "headquartered" in Turkey, but moved its command headquarters to northern Syria in September 2012. [[File:FSA rebels hold a planning session.jpg|thumb|FSA soldiers plan during the [[Battle of Aleppo (2012)|Battle of Aleppo]] (October 2012).]] In March 2012, two reporters of ''The New York Times'' witnessed an FSA attack with a [[Improvised explosive device|roadside bomb]] and AK-47 rifles on a column of armored Syrian tanks in [[Saraqib]] in [[Idlib Governorate]], and learned that FSA had a stock of able, trained soldiers and ex-officers, organized to some extent, but were without the weapons to put up a realistic fight.[http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/world/middleeast/bearing-witness-in-syria-a-war-reporters-last-days.html Bearing Witness in Syria: A Correspondent’s Last Days (page 1)], New York Times (3 March 2012); [http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/world/middleeast/bearing-witness-in-syria-a-war-reporters-last-days.html?pagewanted=2&_r=0 ‘Bearing Witness in Syria’, page 2], NYTimes, 3March2012; [http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/world/middleeast/bearing-witness-in-syria-a-war-reporters-last-days.html?pagewanted=3&_r=0 ‘Bearing Witness in Syria’, page 3], [http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/04/world/middleeast/bearing-witness-in-syria-a-war-reporters-last-days.html?pagewanted=4&_r=0 ‘Bearing Witness in Syria’, page 4]. Retrieved 20 September 2014. In April 2013, the [[United States|US]] announced it would transfer $123 million in nonlethal aid to Syrian rebels through defected general [[Salim Idriss]], leader of the FSA.{{cite web|url=http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2013/05/07/190602/syrian-rebel-leader-salim-idriss.html|title=Syrian rebel leader Salim Idriss admits difficulty of unifying fighters| work=McClatchyDC |accessdate=19 September 2014 |date=7 May 2013}} In May 2013, [[Salim Idriss]], the FSA leader, acknowledged that "the rebels" were badly fragmented and lacked the military skill needed to topple the government of President Bashar al-Assad. Idriss said he was working on a countrywide command structure, but that a lack of material support was hurting that effort. "Now it is very important for them to be unified. But unifying them in a manner to work like a regular army is still difficult", Idriss said. He acknowledged common operations with Islamist group [[Ahrar ash-Sham]] but denied any cooperation with Islamist group [[al-Nusra Front]]. Abu Yusaf, a commander of the [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant]] (ISIL), said in August 2014 that many of the FSA members who had been trained by United States’ and Turkish and Arab military officers were now actually joining IS.{{cite news|url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2014/08/18/the-terrorists-fighting-us-now-we-just-finished-training-them/ |title=The terrorists fighting us now? We just finished training them. |work=The Washington Post|accessdate=19 September 2014| date=18 August 2014}} On the contrary to the ISIL commander's claims, by September 2014 the Free Syrian Army was joining an alliance and a common front with Kurdish militias including the YPG to fight ISIS.{{cite web|url=https://news.vice.com/article/syrian-kurds-ally-with-rebel-groups-to-fight-the-islamic-state|title=Syrian Kurds Ally With Rebel Groups To Fight The Islamic State|work=VICE News|accessdate=2 October 2014}}{{cite web|url=http://rudaw.net/english/kurdistan/180920141|title=As Global Efforts Galvanize in Iraq, Syrian Kurds Left Alone Aga|work=Rudaw|accessdate=14 October 2014}} ====Islamic Front==== {{main|Islamic Front (Syria)|Ahl Al-Sham|Levant Front}} The '''Islamic Front''' ({{lang-ar|‏الجبهة الإسلامية}}, ''al-Jabhat al-Islāmiyyah'') is a merger of seven rebel groups involved in the Syrian civil war that was announced on 22 November 2013.{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/11/22/us-syria-crisis-islamists-merger-idUSBRE9AL0I420131122|title=Six Islamist factions unite in largest Syria rebel merger|publisher=Reuters|date=22 November 2013|accessdate=22 November 2013}} The group has between 40,000{{cite news|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/01/09/us-syria-crisis-rebels-factbox-idUSBREA080SW20140109|title=Factbox: Syria's rebel groups|author=Richard Hall|publisher=Reuters|date=9 January 2014}} and 60,000 fighters. An anonymous spokesman for the group has stated that it will not have ties with the [[Syrian National Coalition]],{{cite news|url=http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Syrian+activists+least+rebels+have+died+battle+army+base/9199491/story.html|title=Series of Syrian Muslim rebel brigades say they've unified under name of the 'Islamic Front'|work=Edmonton Journal|agency=Associated Press|date=22 November 2013|accessdate=22 November 2013}}{{dead link|date=October 2014}} though a member of the political bureau of the group, Ahmad Musa, has stated that he hopes for recognition from the [[Syrian National Council]] in cooperation for what he suggested "the Syrian people want. They want a revolution and not politics and foreign agendas."{{cite web|url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/11/major-syrian-rebel-groups-join-forces-20131122141129975421.html|title=Major Syrian rebel groups join forces|publisher=Al Jazeera English|last=Atassi|first=Basma|date=22 November 2013|accessdate=7 December 2013}} The group is widely seen as backed and armed by [[Saudi Arabia]].[http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/12/syria-fsa-islamic-front-geneva-ii-jarba.html Syrian FSA fades in shadow of Saudi-backed opposition front], [[Al-Monitor]], 11 December 2013[http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/12/16/syria-s-saudi-jihadist-problem.html Syria’s Saudi Jihadist Problem], ''[[Daily Beast]]'', 16 December 2013[http://english.al-akhbar.com/content/al-qaeda-and-isis-renunciation-abu-bakr-al-baghdadi Al-Qaeda and ISIL: The Renunciation of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi], ''[[Al Akhbar (Lebanon)|Al Akhbar]]'', 4 February 2014 The Islamic Front's charter rejects the concepts of [[representative democracy]] and [[secularism]], instead seeking to establish an [[Islamic state]] ruled by a [[Majlis-ash-Shura]] and implementing [[sharia]]. On 30 January 2015, the U.S. backed and [[Central Intelligence Agency|CIA]]-trained [[Hazzm Movement]] joined the Islamic Front."[http://www.cbsnews.com/news/us-backed-syria-rebel-group-hazm-defeated-al-qaeda-nusra-front/ U.S.-backed Syria rebels crumble under al Qaeda fire]". CBS News. 3 March 2015. ====Foreign rebel fighters==== {{further|Foreign rebel fighters in the Syrian Civil War}} In September 2013, US Secretary of State [[John Kerry]] stated that extremist groups make up 15–25% of rebel forces.{{cite news|title=Kerry: Syrian rebels have not been hijacked by extremists|url=http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2013/09/04/syria-hagel-kerry-obama-rebels/2764567/|newspaper=USA Today|date=4 September 2013|first1=Jim|last1=Michaels}} According to [[Charles Lister]], about 12% of rebels are part of groups linked to [[al-Qaeda]], 18% belong to [[Ahrar ash-Sham]], and 9% belong to [[Suqour al-Sham Brigade]].{{cite web|author=Kelley, Michael|url=http://www.businessinsider.com.au/graphic-the-most-accurate-breakdown-of-the-syrian-rebels-2013-9|title=A full extremist-to-moderate spectrum of the 100,000 Syrian rebels|work=Business Insider|date=19 September 2013|accessdate=4 October 2013}}{{cite news|author=Malas, Nour & Abushakra, Rima|url=http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702303796404579096782311389904.html|title=Syrian rebel units reject pro-western opposition political leaders|work=The Wall Street Journal|date=25 September 2013|accessdate=4 October 2013}} These numbers contrast with a report by [[Jane's Information Group]], a defence outlet, claiming almost half of all rebels being affiliated to Islamist groups.{{cite web|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/10311007/Syria-nearly-half-rebel-fighters-are-jihadists-or-hardline-Islamists-says-IHS-Janes-report.html|title=Syria: nearly half rebel fighters are jihadists or hardline Islamists, says IHS Jane's report|date=15 September 2013|work=Telegraph.co.uk|accessdate=26 February 2015}} [[Mujahideen|Foreign fighters]] have joined the conflict in opposition to Assad. While most of them are jihadists, some individuals, such as [[Mahdi al-Harati]], have joined to support the Syrian opposition.{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/30/world/middleeast/as-syrian-war-drags-on-jihad-gains-foothold.html|title=As Syrian War Drags On, Jihadists Take Bigger Role |work=The New York Times|date=29 July 2012 |accessdate=9 December 2012|first1=Neil|last1=MacFarquhar|first2=Hwaida|last2=Saad}} The [[The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence|ICSR]] estimates that 2,000–5,500 foreign fighters have gone to Syria since the beginning of the protests, about 7–11 percent of whom came from Europe. It is also estimated that the number of foreign fighters does not exceed 10 percent of the opposition armed forces.{{cite web|url=http://icsr.info/2013/04/icsr-insight-european-foreign-fighters-in-syria-2/|title=ICSR Insight: European Foreign Fighters in Syria|date=2 April 2013}} Another estimate puts the number of foreign jihadis at 15,000 by early 2014{{cite news|last=Friedman|first=Thomas L.|title=Not Just About Us|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/08/opinion/friedman-not-just-about-us.html|accessdate=9 January 2014|newspaper=New York Times|date=7 January 2014}}), The [[European Commission]] expressed concerns that some of the fighters might use their skills obtained in Syria to commit acts of terrorism back in Europe in the future.{{cite web|url=http://rt.com/news/belgian-father-son-syria-433/|title='He was brainwashed': Desperate Belgian father searches for son fighting in Syria|date=26 April 2013}} [[File:Islamic campaign in support of Syria3.jpg|thumb|Islamist campaign in support of Syrian opposition]] In October 2012, various Iraqi religious groups join the conflict in Syria on both sides. Radical Sunnis from Iraq, have traveled to Syria to fight against President [[Bashar al-Assad]] and the Syrian government.{{cite news|title=Iraqi Sects Join Battle in Syria on Both Sides|date=28 October 2012|work=The New York Times|accessdate=22 November 2012|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/28/world/middleeast/influx-of-iraqi-shiites-to-syria-widens-wars-scope.html|last1=Ghazi|first1=Yasir |last2=Arango |first2=Tim}} Also, Shiites from Iraq, in [[Babil Province]] and [[Diyala Province]], have traveled to [[Damascus]] from [[Tehran]], or from the Shiite Islamic holy city of [[Najaf]], Iraq to protect [[Sayyida Zeinab]], an important mosque and shrine of [[Shia Islam]] in Damascus. In September 2013, leaders of 13 powerful rebel brigades rejected Syrian National Coalition and called Sharia law "the sole source of legislation". In a statement they declared that "the coalition and the putative government headed by Ahmad Tomeh does not represent or recognize us". Among the signatory rebel groups were [[Al-Nusra Front]], [[Ahrar ash-Sham]] and [[Al-Tawheed]].{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2013/09/25/world/meast/syria-rebels/index.html|title=Syrian rebels reject interim government, embrace Sharia|date=25 September 2013 | work=CNN}} In November 2013, seven Islamist groups combined to form the [[Islamic Front (Syria)|Islamic Front]]. =====al-Nusra Front===== {{main|al-Nusra Front}} The al-Nusra Front, being one of the most effective [[jihadism|jihadist]] groups in Syria, is often considered to be the most aggressive and violent part of the opposition.{{cite news|url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/9716545/Inside-Jabhat-al-Nusra-the-most-extreme-wing-of-Syrias-struggle.html|title=Inside Jabhat al Nusra – the most extreme wing of Syria's struggle|date=2 December 2012 | location=London|work=The Daily Telegraph|first=Ruth|last=Sherlock}} Being responsible for over 50 [[suicide bombing]]s, including several deadly explosions in Damascus in [[2011 Damascus bombings|2011]] and [[10 May 2012 Damascus bombings|2012]], it is recognized as a terrorist organization by Syrian government and was designated as such by United States in December 2012. In April 2013, the leader of the [[Islamic state of Iraq]] released an audio statement announcing that al-Nusra Front is its branch in Syria.{{cite news|url=http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130409/qaeda-iraq-confirms-syrias-nusra-part-network|title=Qaeda in Iraq confirms Syria's Nusra is part of network|date=9 April 2013|accessdate=9 April 2013|agency=[[Agence France-Presse]]}} The leader of al-Nusra, Abu Mohammad al-Golani, said that the group will not merge with the Islamic State of Iraq, but still maintain allegiance to [[Ayman al-Zawahiri]], the leader of [[al-Qaeda]].{{cite news|url=http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/78961-al-nusra-commits-to-al-qaida-deny-iraq-branch-merger/|title=Al-Nusra Commits to al-Qaida, Deny Iraq Branch 'Merger'|date=10 April 2013|accessdate=10 April 2013|agency=[[Agence France-Presse]]}} The relationship between the al-Nusra Front and the indigenous Syrian opposition is tense, even though the al-Nusra Front has fought alongside the FSA in several battles, and some FSA fighters defected to the al-Nusra Front.{{cite news|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/may/08/free-syrian-army-rebels-defect-islamist-group |title=Free Syrian Army rebels defect to Islamist group Jabhat al-Nusra |date=8 May 2013 |work=The Guardian|location=London}} The Mujahideen's strict religious views and willingness to impose [[Sharia|sharia law]] disturbed many Syrians.{{cite news|url=http://www.timesofisrael.com/with-wary-eye-syrian-rebels-welcome-islamists-into-their-ranks/|title=With wary eye, Syrian rebels welcome Islamists into their ranks|date=25 October 2012|accessdate=28 January 2013}} Some rebel commanders have accused foreign jihadists of "stealing the revolution", robbing Syrian factories, and displaying religious intolerance.{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/17/syria-crisis-alqaida-fighters-true-colours|title=Syria crisis: al-Qaida fighters revealing their true colours, rebels say|last=Chulov|first=Martin|date=17 January 2013|accessdate=26 January 2013|work=The Guardian|location=London}} al-Nusra has been accused of mistreating religious and ethnic minorities since its formation.[http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2013/06/30/catholic-priest-beheaded-in-syria-by-al-qaeda-linked-rebels-as-men-and-children-take-pictures-and-cheer/ Catholic Priest Allegedly Beheaded in Syria by Al-Qaeda-Linked Rebels as Men and Children Take Pictures and Cheer]. TheBlaze.com (30 June 2013). The estimated manpower of al-Nusra Front is approximately 6,000–10,000 people, including many foreign fighters.{{cite news|url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/23/syria-foreign-fighters-joining-war |title=Syria: the foreign fighters joining the war against Bashar al-Assad|work=The Guardian|date=23 September 2012|accessdate=9 December 2012|location=London|first=Ghaith|last=Abdul-Ahad}} However, in early 2014, their estimated forces dropped to 5,000–6,000 fighters, as al-Nusra lost fighters in combat and in defections to ISIL.{{cite news|url=http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/06/11/why-is-jabhat-al-nusra-no-longer-useful-to-turkey|title=Why Is Jabhat al-Nusra No Longer Useful to Turkey?|date=11 June 2014|accessdate=11 June 2014|work=USNews}} On 10 March 2014, al-Nusra released 13 Christian nuns captured from Malouula, Damascus, in exchange for the release of 150 women from the Syrian government's prisons. The nuns reported that they were treated well by al-Nusra during their captivity, adding that they "were giving us everything we asked for" and that "no one bothered us".{{cite web|author=Agence France-Presse in Jdeitdet Yabus |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/mar/10/kidnapped-nuns-thank-negotiators-freed-syria |title=Kidnapped nuns thank negotiators after being freed in Syria | World news |publisher=theguardian.com |date=2014-03-10 |accessdate=2014-03-20}} ===Syrian Kurds=== {{main|Rojava campaign (2012–present)|Rojava}} [[File:PYD supporters.PNG|thumb|right|Kurds showing their support for the PYD in Afrin during the conflict]] [[Kurds]] – mostly [[Sunni]] Muslims, with a small minority of [[Yezidi]]s – represented 10% of Syria's population at the start of the uprising in 2011. They had suffered from decades of discrimination and neglect, being deprived of basic civil, cultural, economic, and social rights.{{Cite journal |separator= . |title= Report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights on the situation of human rights in the Syrian Arab Republic |url= http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/countries/SY/Syria_Report_2011-08-17.pdf |publisher= UN Human Rights Council |date= 15 September 2011 |accessdate=30 June 2012}}{{rp|7|date=December 2012}} When protests began, Assad's government finally granted citizenship to an estimated 200,000 stateless Kurds, in an effort to try and neutralize potential Kurdish opposition.{{cite web |last= Muscati |first= Samer |date= 14 May 2012 |title= Syrian Kurds Fleeing to Iraqi Safe Haven |url= http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/05/14/syrian-kurds-fleeing-iraqi-safe-haven |publisher= Human Rights Watch |accessdate=30 June 2012 }} This concession, combined with Turkish endorsement of the opposition and Kurdish under-representation in the Syrian National Council, has resulted in Kurds participating in the civil war in smaller numbers than their Syrian Arab Sunni counterparts. Consequently, violence and state repression in Kurdish areas has been less severe. In terms of a post-Assad Syria, Kurds reportedly desire a degree of autonomy within a decentralized state.{{cite news |last1= Blair |first1= Edmund |last2= Saleh |first2= Yasmine |date= 4 July 2012 |title= Syria opposition rifts give world excuse not to act |url= http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/04/uk-syria-crisis-rifts-idUKBRE8630IY20120704 |agency= Reuters |accessdate=9 July 2012 }} Since the outset of the civil war, most Kurdish political parties organized themselves into the [[National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change]] (NCC), holding a more moderate stance regarding the Assad government. However, in October 2011, all but the [[Democratic Union Party (Syria)|Democratic Union Party (PYD)]] left the NCC to form their own umbrella organisation, the [[Kurdish National Council]]. The Syrian Kurdish [[People's Protection Units]] (YPG), first entered the Syrian Civil War as a belligerent in July 2012, by capturing a town, [[Kobanê]], that until then was under control of the Syrian government (see [[Syrian Kurdistan campaign (2012–present)]]). Some communist armed groups from Turkey joined war alongside with YPG. [[Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (Turkey)]] sent some armed units to [[Siege of Kobanî]] and Iraq [[Sinjar]] to fight against [[ISIS]].http://en.firatnews.com/news/news/mlkp-fighter-we-will-be-at-the-front-until-sinjar-is-liberated.htm Those groups do not have their own military units, they fight under YPG units. [[Marxist–Leninist Communist Party (Turkey)]] , [[Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist]] and MLSPB sent fighters to Syria. The conflict between the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and Islamist groups such as al-Nusra Front have escalated since a group of Kurds expelled Islamists from the border town of Ras al-Ain.{{cite web|url=http://rudaw.net/english/interview/22072013|title=YPG Commander: Kurds Are Bulwark Against Islamic Extremism in Sy|work=Rudaw}} ===Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL)=== {{main|Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant}} The [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant]] made rapid military gains in Northern Syria starting in April 2013 and as of mid 2014 controls large parts of that region, where the [[Syrian Observatory for Human Rights]] describes it as "the strongest group".{{cite news|title=Al Qaeda-linked group strengthens hold in northern Syria|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/05/world/europe/syria-turkey-al-qaeda/|author=Gul Tuysuz, Raja Razek, Nick Paton Walsh|publisher=CNN|date=6 November 2013|accessdate=3 December 2013}} It has imposed strict [[Sharia]] law over land that it controls. The group was, until 2014, affiliated with [[al-Qaeda]], led by the Iraqi fighter [[Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi]], and has an estimated 7,000 fighters in Syria, including many non-Syrians. It has been praised as less corrupt than other militia groups, and criticized for abusing human rights{{cite web|title=Syria: Harrowing torture, summary killings in secret ISIS detention centres|url=http://www.amnesty.org/en/news/syria-harrowing-torture-summary-killings-secret-isis-detention-centres-2013-12-19|work=19 December 2013|publisher=Amnesty International|accessdate=3 January 2014}} and for not tolerating non-Islamist militia groups, foreign journalists or aid workers, whose members it has expelled, imprisoned,{{cite journal|last=Birke|first=Sarah|title=How al-Qaeda Changed the Syrian War|journal=New York Review of Books|date=27 December 2013|url=http://www.nybooks.com/blogs/nyrblog/2013/dec/27/how-al-qaeda-changed-syrian-war}} or executed. According to Michael Weiss, ISIL has not been targeted by the Syrian government "with quite the same gusto" as other rebel factions. In summer 2014 the ISIL controlled a third of Syria. It established itself as the dominant force of Syrian opposition, defeating Jabhat al-Nusra in Deir Ezzor province and claiming control over most of Syria's oil and gas production.{{cite web|url=http://www.lrb.co.uk/v36/n16/patrick-cockburn/isis-consolidates|title=ISIS Consolidates|date=2014-08-01|accessdate=2014-08-11}} The Syrian government did not begin to fight ISIL until June 2014 despite its having a presence in Syria since April 2013, according to Kurdish officials.{{cite web|author=Martin Chulov, Middle East correspondent |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/22/isis-syria-airbase-tabqa?CMP=twt_gu |title=Isis fighters surround Syrian airbase in rapid drive to recapture lost territory | World news |publisher=The Guardian |accessdate=2014-08-23}} ISIL has recruited more than 6,300 fighters in July 2014 alone.{{cite web|url=http://dailystar.com.lb/News/Middle-East/2014/Aug-30/269031-syrians-adjust-to-life-under-isis-rule.ashx#axzz3B7bH1Yle|title=Syrians adjust to life under ISIS rule|publisher=The Daily Star|date=29 August 2014|accessdate=29 August 2014}} In September 2014, reportedly some Syrian rebels and ISIL signed a "non-aggression" agreement in a suburb of Damascus, citing inability to deal with both ISIL and the Syrian army's attacks at once.{{cite news|last=Masi|first=Alessandria |url=http://www.ibtimes.com/us-backed-moderate-group-syria-signs-truce-isis-reports-1687662 |title=US-Backed Moderate Group In Syria Signs Truce With ISIS: Reports |publisher=''[[International Business Times]]'' |date=12 September 2014}} Some Syrian rebels have, however, decried the news on the "non-aggression" pact. ==Reporting, censoring and propaganda== {{main|Reporting, censoring and propaganda in the Syrian Civil War}} According to the [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]], given the complexity of the Syrian conflict, media bias in reporting remains a key challenge, plaguing the collection of useful data and misinforming researchers and policymakers regarding the actual events taking place.http://www.sipriyearbook.org/view/9780198712596/sipri-9780198712596-chapter-2-div1-2.xml# SIPRI Yearbook 2014, Aspects of the conflict in Syria [[SIPRI]] also found that the number of reported events in the Syrian conflict, both violent and political, varied enormously between news sources, with SANA lying at one extreme: it barely reported on violent actions, especially during the period before 2013. Reporting on this war is difficult and dangerous: journalists are being attacked, detained, and reportedly tortured, with over one hundred reportedly killed already by October 2012. Technical facilities (internet, telephone etc.) are being sabotaged by the Syrian government. Both sides in this war try to disqualify their opponent by framing or indicating them with negative labels and terms (‘terrorists’, ‘propaganda’, ‘biased’, ‘US conspiracy’, 'Syrian regime'), or by presenting false on-line evidence.All reference sources to this summarizing section are of course to be found in the mentioned main article: [[Reporting, censoring and propaganda in the Syrian Civil War]] ==International reaction== {{main|International reactions to the Syrian Civil War}} [[File:Esther Brimmer Speaks at Human Rights Council Urgent Debate on Syria (3).jpg|thumb|[[Esther Brimmer]] (U.S.) speaks at a [[United Nations Human Rights Council]] urgent debate on Syria, February 2012]] The [[Arab League]], [[European Union]], the United Nations,{{cite news |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2011/03/2011318231622114396.html |title=UN chief slams Syria's crackdown on protests |publisher=Al Jazeera|date=18 March 2011}} and many Western governments quickly condemned "the Syrian government's violent response to the protests, and expressed support for the protesters' right to exercise [[free speech]]".{{cite news |url=http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jj7uSbIAaro1v0fwW4jziIxQ1j9w?docId=CNG.a807bd69f3debaa7a6b4ca2383f9500b.1191 |title=Canada condemns violence in Yemen, Bahrain, Syria |agency=Agence France-Presse |date=21 March 2011 |accessdate=22 March 2011}}{{Dead link|date=May 2014}} Initially, many Middle Eastern governments expressed support for Assad, but as the death toll mounted they switched approach, criticizing violence from both government and protesters. Both the Arab League and the [[Organisation of Islamic Cooperation]] suspended Syria's membership. Russia and China vetoed Western-drafted [[United Nations Security Council]] resolutions in 2011 and 2012, which would have threatened the Syrian government with targeted sanctions if it continued military actions against protestors.{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15177114|title=China and Russia veto UN resolution condemning Syria|publisher=BBC|date=5 October 2011}} The [[United Nations]] held a peace conference in [[Geneva]] on Saturday 30 June 2012, later called the Geneva I Conference.{{cite web|url=http://www.un.org/News/dh/infocus/Syria/FinalCommuniqueActionGroupforSyria.pdf |title=Action Group for Syria - Final Communiqué |publisher=UN |date=30 June 2012}} The [[Geneva II Middle East peace conference|Geneva II Conference]] took place in [[Switzerland]] from 22 to 31 January 2014. A third round of negotiations began in [[Moscow]] on Monday 26 January 2015.{{cite news|title=Russian FM to meet with Syrian negotiators in Moscow|date=28 January 2015|url=http://itar-tass.com/en/russia/773753|work=[[Russian News Agency "TASS"|TASS]]}} ==Humanitarian help== {{main|Humanitarian aid during the Syrian civil war}} The international humanitarian response to the conflict in Syria is coordinated by the [[United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs]] (UNOCHA) in accordance with [[United Nations General Assembly|General Assembly]] Resolution 46/182.United Nations General Assembly Resolution 182 session 46 ''Strengthening of the coordination of humanitarian emergency assistance of the United Nations on 19 December 1991'' The primary framework for this coordination is the Syria Humanitarian Assistance Response Plan (SHARP) which appealed for [[USD]] $1.41 billion to meet the humanitarian needs of Syrians affected by the conflict.[http://reliefweb.int/report/syrian-arab-republic/revised-syria-humanitarian-assistance-response-plan-sharp-january United Nations, Syria Humanitarian Assistance Response Plan (SHARP)]. Retrieved 18 September 2013 Official United Nations data on the humanitarian situation and response is available at http://syria.unocha.org/; an official website managed by UNOCHA Syria (Amman). UNICEF is also working alongside these organizations to provide vaccinations and care packages to those in need. It has launched a vaccination campaign to eradicate polio from the region, as 17 cases have come up since the war broke over three years ago. [[File:U.S. Airmen with the 386th Expeditionary Logistics Readiness Squadron load pallets of humanitarian relief supplies onto a C-17 Globemaster III aircraft at an undisclosed location in Southwest Asia June 4, 2013 130604-F-KL201-115.jpg|thumb|US non-lethal aid to Syrian opposition forces, May 2013]] Financial information on the response to the SHARP, as well as assistance to refugees and for cross-border operations, can be found on UNOCHA's Financial Tracking Service. As at 18 September 2013, the top ten donors to Syria were: United States, European Commission, Kuwait, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia, and Denmark.UNOCHA, Financial Tracking Service, http://fts.unocha.org/pageloader.aspx?page=emerg-emergencyDetails&emergID=16303. Retrieved 18 September 2013 [[USAID]] and other government agencies in US delivered nearly $385 million of aid items to Syria in 2012 and 2013. The United States is providing food aid, medical supplies, emergency and basic health care, shelter materials, clean water, hygiene education and supplies, and other relief supplies.{{cite web|url=http://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/working-crises-and-conflict/responding-times-crisis/where-we-work/syria|title=USAID/SYRIA}} [[Islamic Relief]] has stocked 30 hospitals and sent hundreds of thousands of medical and food parcels.{{cite web|url=http://www.irusa.org/emergencies/syrian-humanitarian-relief/|title=SYRIAN HUMANITARIAN RELIEF}} Other countries in the region have also contributed various levels of aid. Iran has been exporting between 500 and 800 tonnes of flour daily to Syria.{{cite news|url=http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130303/iran-sending-tonnes-flour-daily-syria-report|title=Iran sending tonnes of flour daily to Syria: report|agency=Agence France-Presse |date=3 March 2013}} Israel has provided treatment to 750 Syrians in a field hospital located in the [[Golan Heights]]. Rebels say that 250 of their fighters received medical treatment there.{{cite news|url=http://www.thenational.ae/world/revealed-how-syrian-rebels-seek-medical-help-from-an-unlikely-source-in-israel|title=Revealed: how Syrian rebels seek medical help from an unlikely source in Israel|date=2014-01-12|accessdate=2014-01-17}} On 26 April 2013, a humanitarian convoy, inspired by [[Gaza Flotilla]], departed from Turkey to Syria. Called ''Hayat'' ("Life"), it is set to deliver aid items to [[Internally displaced person|IDPs]] inside Syria and refugees in neighboring countries: Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt. Syrian refugees make up one quarter of Lebanon's population, mostly consisting of women and children.{{cite web|url=http://www.worldbulletin.net/?aType=haber&ArticleID=107584|title=Humanitarian aid convoy departs to help Syrian refugees|date=27 April 2013}} The [[World Health Organization]] has reported that 35% of the country's hospitals are out of service and, depending upon the region, up to 70% of health care professionals have fled. Cases of [[diarrhoea]] and [[hepatitis A]] have increased by more than twofold since the beginning of 2013. Due to fighting, the normal vaccination programs cannot be undertaken. The displaced refugees may also pose a risk to countries to which they have fled.{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-22766084 |title=WHO warns of Syria disease threat |publisher=BBC |date=4 June 2013}} ==Foreign involvement== {{Main|Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War|Foreign rebel fighters in the Syrian Civil War}} Both the Syrian government and the opposition have received support, militarily and diplomatically, from foreign countries leading the conflict to often be described as a [[proxy war]]. The major parties supporting the Syrian Government are [[Iranian support for Syria in the Syrian Civil War|Iran and Hezbollah]]. Both of these are involved in the war politically and logistically by providing military equipment, training and battle troops. The Syrian government has also received arms from Russia and [[SIGINT]] support directly from [[Main Intelligence Directorate (Russia)|GRU]],{{cite news|url= http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/.premium-1.619664 |title= Russia commanded spy operation against Israeli forces and Syria rebels, footage shows |first= Anshel|last=Pfeffer | publisher=Haaretz|quote= |date=7 October 2014|accessdate=7 October 2014}} in addition to significant political [[Russia's role in the Syrian Civil War|support from Russia]].[http://edition.cnn.com/2013/08/29/world/meast/syria-iran-china-russia-supporters/ Syria allies: Why Russia, Iran and China are standing by the regime], CNN, 30 August 2013 The main Syrian opposition body – the Syrian coalition – receives political, logistic and military support from the [[Syria–United States relations|United States]], Britain and France.{{cite news|last=Memmott|first=Mark|title=As Talks Continue, CIA Gets Some Weapons To Syrian Rebels|url=http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2013/09/13/222020019/as-talks-continue-cia-gets-some-weapons-to-syrian-rebels|accessdate=10 December 2013|publisher=National Public Radio|date=13 November 2013}}{{cite news|last=Marcus|first=Jonathon|title=Syria conflict: UK to give extra £5m to opposition groups|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-19205204|accessdate=10 December 2013|publisher=BBC News|date=10 August 2012}}{{cite news|title=France’s Hollande hints at arming Syrian rebels|url=http://www.france24.com/en/20130920-france-says-ready-arm-syrian-rebels-hollande-assad-fsa-islamists|accessdate=10 December 2013|publisher=France24|date=20 September 2013}} Some Syrian rebels get [[Covert United States foreign regime change actions#Syria 2012–present|training from the CIA]] at bases in [[Qatar]], [[Jordan]] and [[Saudi Arabia]].{{cite AV media |url=http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/podcasts/radio4/fooc/fooc_20141113-1200b.mp3 |time=11:41 |title=The Missing Students |author=[[Frank Gardner (journalist)|Frank Gardner]] |publisher=BBC Radio 4 |work=From Our Own Correspondent |date=13 November 2014 |accessdate=14 November 2014}}{{cite news |url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/foreign-affairs-defense/syria-at-war/syrian-rebels-describe-u-s-backed-training-in-qatar/ |title=Syrian Rebels Describe U.S.-Backed Training in Qatar |publisher=Public Broadcasting Service |work=FRONTLINE |date=26 May 2014 |accessdate=14 November 2014}}{{cite news|title=First Syria rebels armed and trained by CIA 'on way to battlefield' |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/10283758/First-Syria-rebels-armed-and-trained-by-CIA-on-way-to-battlefield.html |newspaper=The Daily Telegraph |author=Raf Sanchez |date=3 September 2013 |accessdate=14 November 2014}} The Syrian coalition also receives logistic and political support from Sunni states, most notably [[Turkey]], Qatar and Saudi Arabia; all the three major supporting states however have not contributed any troops for direct involvement in the war, though Turkey was involved in border incidents with the Syrian Army. The ''Financial Times'' and ''The Independent'' reported that [[Qatar]] had funded the Syrian rebellion by as much as $3 billion.{{cite news |url=http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/too-late-the-sponsors-of-ideology-find-they-have-made-a-monster-9687723.html |title=Meet the Frankenstein monster of Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Or as we know them, Isis |author=[[Paul Vallely]] |newspaper=The Independent |date=24 August 2014}}{{cite news |url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/86e3f28e-be3a-11e2-bb35-00144feab7de.html |title=Qatar bankrolls Syrian revolt with cash and arms |author=Roula Khalaf and Abigail Fielding Smith |newspaper=Financial Times |date=16 May 2013 |accessdate=3 June 2013}} {{subscription required}} It reported that Qatar was offering refugee packages of about $50,000 a year to defectors and family. Saudi Arabia has emerged as the main group to finance and arm the rebels."[http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/31/us-syria-crisis-saudi-insight-idUSBRE94U0ZV20130531 Saudi edges Qatar to control Syrian rebel support]". Reuters. 31 May 2013 French television France 24 reported that the [[Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant]], with perhaps 3,000 foreign jihadists among its ranks,"[http://www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21604230-extreme-islamist-group-seeks-create-caliphate-and-spread-jihad-across Two Arab countries fall apart]". ''[[The Economist]]''. 14 June 2014. "receives private donations from the [[Arab states of the Persian Gulf|Gulf states]].""[http://www.france24.com/static/infographies/2013/syrie-groupes-terroristes-carte/en/index.html Syria's top Islamist and jihadist groups]". [[France 24]]. The major Syrian Kurdish opposition group, the PYD, was reported to get logistic and training support from [[Iraqi Kurdistan]]. On 21 August 2014, two days after U.S. photojournalist [[James Foley (photojournalist)|James Foley]] was beheaded, the [[United States Armed Forces|U.S. military]] admitted a covert rescue attempt involving dozens of [[Special Forces (United States Army)|U.S. Special Operations forces]] had been made to rescue Americans and other foreigners held captive in Syria by ISIL militants. The rescue attempt is the first known U.S. military ground action inside Syria. The resultant gunfight resulted in one U.S. soldier being injured. The rescue was unsuccessful as the captives were not in the location targeted. On 11 September 2014 Congress expressed support to give President Obama the $500 million he wants to arm and train moderate Syrian rebels. The question of whether the president has authority to continue airstrikes beyond the 60-day window granted by the War Powers Resolution remained unresolved.{{cite web|last1=Sherfinski|first1=David|title=Both sides of Congress have own red lines for Obama’s action in Syria|url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/sep/11/both-sides-of-congress-have-own-red-lines-for-obam/|work=Washington Times|accessdate=11 September 2014}} On 12 September, US Secretary of State John Kerry met Turkish leaders to secure backing for U.S.-led action against ISIL, but Ankara showed reluctance to play a frontline role. Kerry stated that it was "not appropriate" for Iran to join talks on confronting ISIL.{{cite web|last1=Reuters|first1=Presidential press Office|title=Kerry opposes Iran role in anti-Islamic State coalition|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/09/13/us-iraq-crisis-kerry-idUSKBN0H71UP20140913|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=13 September 2014}} The plans revealed in September also involve Iraq in targeting ISIL. U.S. warplanes have launched 158 strikes in Iraq over the past five weeks while emphasizing a relatively narrow set of targets. The Pentagon's press secretary, John Kirby, said the air campaign in Iraq, which began 8 Aug., will enter a more aggressive phase.{{cite news|last1=Burns|first1=Robert|title=Strikes in Iraq, Syria expected under new war plan|url=http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/stories/U/US_ISLAMIC_STATE_WHAT_COMES_NEXT?SITE=AP&SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT&CTIME=2014-09-13-04-48-28|work=Associated Press|accessdate=13 September 2014}}{{dead link|date=October 2014}} ==Impact== ===Deaths=== {{main|Casualties of the Syrian Civil War}} [[File:Total deaths during the syrian civil war (October 2013).png|thumb|right|Total deaths over the course of the conflict in Syria (18 March 2011 – 18 October 2013)]] Estimates of deaths in the conflict vary widely, with figures, per opposition activist groups, ranging from 129,230 and 295,060.{{cite web|url=http://www.vdc-sy.org/index.php/en/home|title=Statistics for the number of martyrs|date=3 June 2013|publisher=Violations Documenting Center}}{{cite web|url=http://www.vdc-sy.org/index.php/en/otherstatistics|title=Other statistics|date=3 June 2013|publisher=Violations Documenting Center}}{{cite web |url=http://syrianshuhada.com/?lang=en&|title=Syrian Martyrs |publisher=Free Syria |accessdate=2 May 2013}} On 2 January 2013, the United Nations stated that 60,000 had been killed since the civil war began, with UN [[High Commissioner for Human Rights]] [[Navi Pillay]] saying "The number of casualties is much higher than we expected, and is truly shocking."{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2013/01/02/world/meast/syria-civil-war/index.html |title=U.N.'s Syria death toll jumps dramatically to 60,000-plus|date=3 January 2013 | work=CNN}} Four months later, the UN's updated figure for the death toll had reached 80,000.{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-22886730 |title=Syria death toll at least 93,000, says UN |publisher=BBC News |date= 13 June 2013}} On 13 June, the UN released an updated figure of people killed since fighting began, the figure being exactly 92,901, for up to the end of April 2013. [[Navi Pillay]], UN high commissioner for human rights, stated that: "This is most likely a minimum casualty figure." The real toll was guessed to be over 100,000.{{cite web|url=http://www.timesofoman.com/News/Article-20325.aspx |title=More than 2,000 killed in Syria since Ramadan began |work=Times of Oman |date=2013-07-25 |accessdate=2013-08-27}}{{cite news|title=U.N. says Syria death toll has likely surpassed 100,000|url=http://www.latimes.com/news/world/worldnow/la-fg-wn-un-syria-death-toll-20130613,0,2953708.story|newspaper=Los Angeles Times|date=13 June 2013|first=Patrick J.|last=McDonnell}} Some areas of the country have been affected disproportionately by the war; by some estimates, as many as a third of all deaths have occurred in the city of [[Homs]].{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-21228039|title=Syria crisis: Solidarity amid suffering in Homs|publisher=BBC|date=29 January 2013|accessdate=29 January 2013}} One problem has been determining the number of "armed combatants" who have died, due to some sources counting rebel fighters who were not government defectors as civilians.{{cite web|last=Enders |first=David |url=http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2012/11/06/173808/deaths-in-syria-down-from-peak.html |title=Deaths in Syria down from peak; army casualties outpacing rebels'|date=6 November 2012 |accessdate=14 November 2012}} At least half of those confirmed killed have been estimated to be combatants from both sides, including 52,290 government fighters and 29,080 rebels, with an additional 50,000 unconfirmed combatant deaths. In addition, [[UNICEF]] reported that over 500 children had been killed by early February 2012,{{cite news|url=http://www6.arabnews.com/node/405908|title=400 children killed in Syria unrest |publisher=Arab News|date=8 February 2012 |accessdate=28 January 2013|location=Geneva }}{{Dead link|date=May 2014}} and another 400 children have been reportedly arrested and tortured in Syrian prisons;{{cite web |last=Peralta |first=Eyder |url=http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2012/02/03/146346490/rights-group-says-syrian-security-forces-detained-tortured-children |title=Rights Group Says Syrian Security Forces Detained, Tortured Children: The Two-Way |publisher=NPR |date=3 February 2012 }} both of these claims have been contested by the Syrian government. Additionally, over 600 detainees and political prisoners are known to have died under torture.{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/06/world/middleeast/hundreds-tortured-in-syria-human-rights-group-says.html |work=The New York Times |first=Kareem |last=Fahim |title=Hundreds Tortured in Syria, Human Rights Group Says |date=5 January 2012|accessdate=12 March 2013 }} In mid-October 2012, the opposition activist group [[Syrian Observatory for Human Rights|SOHR]] reported the number of children killed in the conflict had risen to 2,300,{{cite web|url=http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/160978#.UH2WesU3tCg |title=Fighting Continues in Syria |publisher=Arutz Sheva|date=16 October 2012 |accessdate=25 October 2012}} and in March 2013, opposition sources stated that over 5,000 children had been killed. In January 2014, [[2014 Syrian detainee report|a report]] was released detailing the systematic killing of more than 11,000 detainees of the Syrian government.{{cite web|author=Ian Black, Middle East editor |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/20/evidence-industrial-scale-killing-syria-war-crimes?view=desktop |title=Syrian regime document trove shows evidence of 'industrial scale' killing of detainees |publisher=Theguardian.com |accessdate=2014-05-21}} On 20 August 2014, a new U.N. study concludes at least 191,369 people have died in Syrian conflict.{{cite web|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2014/08/22/world/meast/syria-conflict/index.html?hpt=imi_c2|title=With more than 191,000 dead in Syria, U.N. rights chief slams global 'paralysis'|author=Laura Smith-Spark, CNN|date=22 August 2014|work=CNN}} ===Illness=== Once-rare infectious diseases have spread in rebel held areas, primarily affecting children, brought on by the collapse of sanitation and deteriorating living conditions. These include [[measles]], [[typhoid]], [[hepatitis]], [[dysentery]], [[tuberculosis]], [[diphtheria]], [[whooping cough]], [[leishmaniasis]], (a disfiguring parasitic skin disease). Of particular concern is the contagious and crippling [[Poliomyelitis]] which as of late 2013 doctors and international public health agencies report more than 90 cases of. Critics of the government complain that it has brought on the spread of disease by cutting off vaccination, sanitation and safe-water services to "areas considered politically unsympathetic" even before the uprising.{{cite journal|last=Sparrow|first=Annie|title=Syria’s Polio Epidemic: The Suppressed Truth|journal=New York Review|date=20 February 2014|url=http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2014/feb/20/syrias-polio-epidemic-suppressed-truth/?insrc=hpma&utm_source=Sailthru&utm_medium=email&utm_term=*Mideast%20Brief&utm_campaign=Mideast%20Brief%201-22-2014|accessdate=23 January 2014|quote=Even before the uprising, in areas considered politically unsympathetic like Deir Ezzor, the government stopped maintaining sanitation and safe-water services, and began withholding routine immunizations for preventable childhood diseases. Once the war began, the government started ruthless attacks on civilians in opposition-held areas, forcing millions to seek refuge in filthy, crowded, and cold conditions.}} Data from Physicians for Human Rights shows a map of attacks on health care in Syria, the majority are allegedly government attacks. amazonaws.com[https://s3.amazonaws.com/PHR_syria_map/web/index.html PHR Syria map] ===Refugees=== {{main|Refugees of the Syrian Civil War}} [[File:Syrian refugees in lebanon.jpg|thumb|Syrian refugees in Lebanon living in cramped quarters (6 August 2012).]] The violence in Syria has caused millions to flee their homes. In August 2012, the United Nations said more than one million people were internally displaced,{{cite news|title=Syria crisis: Number of refugees rises to 200,000|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19370506|accessdate=24 August 2012|date=24 August 2012|publisher=BBC News}} and, in September 2013, the UN reported that more than 6.5 million Syrians had been displaced, of whom 2 million fleeing to neighboring countries, 1 in 3 of those refugees (about 667,000 people) seeking safety in tiny [[Lebanon]] (normally 4.8 million population)."[http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/09/05/world/middleeast/Syrian-Refugees-in-Lebanon.html Syrian Refugees in Lebanon]," ''The New York Times'', 5 September 2013 Others have fled to Jordan, Turkey, and Iraq. Turkey has accepted +1.000.000 (2014) Syrian refugees, half of whom are spread around a cities and dozen camps placed under the direct authority of the Turkish Government. Satellite images confirmed that the first Syrian camps appeared in Turkey in July 2011, shortly after the towns of Deraa, Homs, and Hama were besieged.{{cite web|url=http://www.astrium-geo.com/en/4807-syrian-refugee-camps-in-turkish-territory-interactive-web-report |title=Syrian refugee camps in Turkish territory tracked by satellite |publisher=Astrium-geo.com}} In September 2014, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 3 million.{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/08/29/us-syria-crisis-refugees-idUSKBN0GT0AX20140829|title=Syrian refugees top 3 million, half of all Syrians displaced: U.N.|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2 October 2014}} According to the [[Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs]], Sunnis are leaving for Lebanon and undermining Hizbullah's status. The fleeing Syrian refugees has caused the "Jordan is Palestine" threat to be diminished due to the onslaught of new refugees in Jordan. Additionally, "the West Bank is undergoing emigration pressures which will certainly be copied in Gaza if emigration is allowed."{{cite web|last1=Inbari|first1=Pinhas|title=Demographic Upheaval: How the Syrian War is Reshaping the Region|url=http://jcpa.org/article/syrian-war-is-reshaping-the-region/|publisher=Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs|accessdate=19 June 2014}} Greek Catholic Patriarch [[Gregory III Laham|Gregorios III Laham]] claims more than 450,000 [[Christianity in Syria|Syrian Christians]] have been displaced by the conflict."[http://www.algemeiner.com/2013/10/18/syrian-civil-war-causes-one-third-of-country%E2%80%99s-christians-to-flee-their-homes/ Syrian Civil War Causes One-Third of Country’s Christians to Flee Their Homes ]". ''The Algemeiner Journal''. 18 October 2013. ===Human rights violations=== {{Main|Human rights violations during the Syrian Civil War}} According to various human rights organizations and United Nations, human rights violations have been committed by both the government and the rebels, with the "vast majority of the abuses having been committed by the Syrian government", according to the UN.{{cite web|url=http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/afp/130313/un-must-refer-syria-war-crimes-icc-amnesty |title=UN must refer Syria war crimes to ICC: Amnesty |publisher=GlobalPost |accessdate=2014-03-20}}{{cite news|url=http://www.cnn.com/2013/03/16/world/meast/syria-civil-war/index.html |title=Top Syrian general defects, says morale among forces at a low |publisher=CNN.com |accessdate=2014-03-27 |date=16 March 2013}}[http://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2014/jan/20/torture-of-persons-under-current-syrian-regime-report],[http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/20/evidence-industrial-scale-killing-syria-war-crimes The Guardian, 20 January 2014]{{cite web|url=http://www.aa.com.tr/en/u/333013--aa-reveals-new-set-of-photos-documenting-syria-war-crimes |title=syria war crimes |publisher=Aa.com.tr |accessdate=2014-05-27}} The U.N. [[Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic|commission]] investigating human rights abuses in Syria confirms at least 9 intentional mass killings in the period 2012 to mid-July 2013, identifying the perpetrator as Syrian government and its supporters in eight cases, and the opposition in one.{{cite news|last=Heilprin|first=John|title=Syria Massacres: UN Probe Finds 8 Were Perpetrated By Syria Regime, 1 By Rebels|url=http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/09/11/syria-massacres_n_3905323.html|publisher=Huffington Post|date=11 September 2013}}{{cite web|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/news/8-massacres-by-syria-regime-and-1-by-rebels-since-april-2012-un-war-crimes-report-shows/|title=8 massacres by Syria regime and 1 by rebels since April 2012, U.N. war crimes report shows|date=11 September 2013|work=cbsnews.com}} [[File:Ghouta massacre1.JPG|thumb|Syria's civil war victims]]By late November 2013, according to the [[Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network]] (EMHRN) report entitled "Violence against Women, Bleeding Wound in the Syrian Conflict", approximately 6,000 women have been raped (including gang-rape) since the start of the conflict - with figures likely to be much higher given that most cases go unreported.[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-25100122 Syria conflict: Women 'targets of abuse and torture'], BBC, 26 November 2013.{{cite web|url=http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2013/11/25/Report-rape-used-as-weapon-of-war-against-Syria-women-.html |title=Report: rape used as weapon of war against Syria women |publisher=English.alarabiya.net |accessdate=2014-05-21}}{{cite web|url=http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/regions/middle-east/syria/131126/6000-women-raped-during-syrian-conflict |title=6,000 cases of women raped during Syrian conflict, human rights group says |publisher=Globalpost.com |date=2013-11-26 |accessdate=2014-05-21}} According to three international lawyers,Sir Desmond de Silva QC, former chief prosecutor of the special court for Sierra Leone, Sir Geoffrey Nice QC, the former lead prosecutor of former Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milosevic, and Professor David Crane, who indicted President Charles Taylor of Liberia at the Sierra Leone court Syrian government officials could face war crimes charges in the light of a huge cache of evidence smuggled out of the country showing the "systematic killing" of about [[2014 Syrian detainee report|11,000 detainees]]. Most of the victims were young men and many corpses were emaciated, bloodstained and bore signs of torture. Some had no eyes; others showed signs of strangulation or electrocution.{{cite web|url=http://foreignaffairs.house.gov/photo-gallery/syria-army-defectors-photos|title=foreignaffairs.house.gov|publisher=|accessdate=2 October 2014}} Experts say this evidence is more detailed and on a far larger scale than anything else that has yet emerged from the 34-month crisis.{{cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/20/evidence-industrial-scale-killing-syria-war-crimes|title=Syrian regime document trove shows evidence of 'industrial scale' killing of detainees|date=21 January 2014|publisher=theguardian|accessdate=21 January 2014}}{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2014/01/20/world/syria-torture-photos-amanpour/|title=EXCLUSIVE: Gruesome Syria photos may prove torture by Assad regime|date=21 January 2014|publisher=CNN|accessdate=21 January 2014}} On 30 January 2014, Human Rights Watch released a report detailing, between June 2012 and July 2013, government forces razing to the ground seven anti-government districts in the cities of Damascus and Hama, equating to an area the size of 200 football fields. Witnesses spoke of explosives and bulldozers being used to knock down buildings.{{cite news|author=Stay informed today and every day |url=http://www.economist.com/blogs/pomegranate/2014/01/syrias-civil-war |title=Syria's civil war: War crimes and peace talks |publisher=Economist.com |date=2014-01-30 |accessdate=2014-05-21}} [[Satellite imagery]] was provided as part of the report and the destruction was characterized as collective punishment against residents of rebel-held areas.{{cite web|author=Martin Chulov in Beirut |url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/30/syria-neighbourhoods-residents |title=The Guardian, 30 January 2014 |publisher=Theguardian.com |date=2014-01-30 |accessdate=2014-05-21}} UN reported also that ''"[[siege]] warfare is employed in a context of egregious human rights and international humanitarian law violations. The warring parties do not fear being held accountable for their acts."'' Armed forces of both sides of the conflict blocked access of humanitarian convoys, confiscated food, cut off water supplies and targeted farmers working their fields. The report pointed to four places besieged by the government forces: Muadamiyah, Daraya, Yarmouk camp and Old City of Homs, as well as two areas under siege of rebel groups: Aleppo and Hama.{{cite web|url=http://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/RegularSessions/Session25/Documents/A-HRC-25-65_en.doc|title=Report of the independent international commission of inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic|date=2014-02-12|accessdate=2014-03-07}}{{cite web|url=http://www.thenewage.co.za/120337-1020-53-UN_decries_use_of_sieges_starvation_in_Syrian_military_strategy |title=UN decries use of sieges, starvation in Syrian military strategy | The New Age Online |publisher=Thenewage.co.za |date=2014-03-05 |accessdate=2014-03-20}} In [[Yarmouk Camp]] 20,000 residents are facing death by starvation due to blockade by the Syrian government forces and fighting between the army and [[Jabhat al-Nusra]], which prevents food distribution by UNRWA.{{cite news|url=http://www.miamiherald.com/2014/03/03/3971810/yarmouk-update-nusras-apparent.html|title=Yarmouk update: Nusra's apparent return complicates UNRWA's hopes for food program|date=2014-03-03|accessdate=2014-03-06}} The UN further stated that government sieges have left more than 250,000 subjected to relentless shelling and bombardment. "They are denied humanitarian aid, food and such basic necessities as medical care, and must choose between surrender and starvation," the members of the UN Commission of Inquiry said.{{cite web|url=http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=1706092&CategoryId=12395 |title=Latin American Herald Tribune - UN: Assad Regime Causing Mass Civilian Casualties in Syria |publisher=Laht.com |date=2013-06-15 |accessdate=2014-03-27}} ISIL forces have been accused by UN of using public executions, amputations and lashings in a campaign to instill fear. ''"Forces of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant have committed torture, murder, acts tantamount to enforced disappearance and forced displacement as part of attacks on the civilian population in Aleppo and Raqqa provinces, amounting to crimes against humanity"'', said the report from 27 August 2014.{{cite web|url=http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/aug/27/syria-isis-war-crimes-united-nations-un|title=Syria and Isis committing war crimes, says UN|date=2014-08-27|accessdate=2014-08-29}} Enforced disappearances and arbitrary detentions have also been a feature since the Syrian uprising began.{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-29653526|title=syrias disappeared|date=2014-11-11|accessdate=2014-11-11}} ===Threats against Syrian sects, minorities and majority=== {{main|Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War}} [[File:Syria Ethno-religious composition..jpg|thumb|Map of Syria's ethno-religious composition in 1976]] The successive governments of Hafez and Bashar al-Assad have been closely associated with the country's minority [[Alawite]] religious group,{{cite news|title=Syria: Sunnis Threatening to Massacre Minority Alawites|url=http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/151013#.T1zwtitSSMd|agency=Arutz Sheva|date=23 December 2011|accessdate=11 March 2011|first=Elad|last=Behari}} an offshoot of Shia, whereas the majority of the population, and most of the opposition, is [[Sunni]]. Due to heavily involvement in the Syrian forces and their pro-militia, Alawites started to be threatened and attacked by dominantly Sunni rebel fighting groups like the [[Al-Nusra Front]] and the [[Free Syrian Army|FSA]] since December 2012 (see [[Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War#Alawites]]). From the other side, sunni also is threatened due to massive killing by Syrian forces and millions of them have taken refuge in Syria neighboring countries since beginning of 2012. Many [[Christianity in Syria|Syrian Christians]] reported to have fled after they were targeted by the anti-government rebels.{{cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/14/world/middleeast/christians-squeezed-out-by-violent-struggle-in-north-syria.html?pagewanted=all | title=Christians Squeezed Out by Violent Struggle in North Syria | date=13 February 2013 | accessdate=6 April 2013 | author=Güsten, Susanne | work=The New York Times}}{{cite news|url=http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/11/19/syria-s-christians-flee-kidnappings-rape-executions.html|title=Syria's Christians Flee Kidnappings, Rape, Executions |last=Dettmet|first=Jamie|date=19 November 2013|publisher=The Daily Beast |accessdate=20 November 2013}} (See: [[Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War#Christians]].) ===Economy=== By July 2013, the Syrian economy had shrunk 45 percent since the start of the conflict. Unemployment increased fivefold, the value of the Syrian currency decreased to one-sixth its pre-war value, and the public sector lost USD $15 billion.{{cite news|title=Syria Weighs Its Tactics As Pillars of Its Economy Continue to Crumble|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/world/middleeast/government-in-syria-searches-for-answers-as-economy-crumbles.html|newspaper=The New York Times|date=13 July 2013|first=Anne|last=Barnard}}{{cite web|url=http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/business/2013/02/economic-impact-syrian-crisis.html |title=Report Shows War's Impact on Syrian Economy – Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East |publisher=Al-Monitor }} By the end of 2013, the UN estimated total economic damage of the Syrian civil war at $143 billion.[http://www.publicfinanceinternational.org/news/2014/06/un-highlights-economic-damage-of-syrian-conflict/ UN highlights economic damage of Syrian conflict] Public Finance International ===Crime wave=== {{see also|Islamic_State_of_Iraq_and_the_Levant#Human_rights_abuse_and_war_crime_findings}} [[File:Aleppo hospital.PNG|thumb|right|Doctors and medical staff treating injured rebel fighters and civilians in Aleppo]] As the conflict has expanded across Syria, many cities have been engulfed in a wave of crime as fighting caused the disintegration of much of the civilian state, and many police stations stopped functioning. Rates of thievery increased, with criminals looting houses and stores. Rates of kidnappings increased as well. Rebel fighters were sighted stealing cars and destroying an Aleppo restaurant in which Syrian soldiers had eaten.{{cite news|last=Cave|first=Damein|title=Crime Wave Engulfs Syria as Its Cities Reel From War|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/10/world/middleeast/crime-wave-engulfs-syria-as-its-cities-reel-from-war.html|accessdate=26 August 2012|work=The New York Times|date=9 August 2012}} In August 2014, the UN accused [[ISIL]] of committing "mass atrocities" and war crimes.[http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/08/un-accuses-islamic-state-group-war-crimes-2014827153541710630.html "UN accuses Islamic State group of war crimes"] Al Jazeera 27 August 2014{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-28948555|title=Syria conflict: Islamic State 'committed war crimes'|date=27 August 2014|publisher=BBC News|accessdate=2 September 2014}} Some reports also state that ISIL participating in mass execution of civilians,{{cite news|title=ISIL Militants Killed More Than 1000 Civilians In Recent Onslaught In recent Onslaught in Iraq: UN|url=http://www.rttnews.com/2340932/isil-militants-killed-more-than-1000-civilians-in-recent-onslaught-in-iraq-un.aspx|publisher=[[RT (TV Network)|RT News]]|accessdate=4 July 2014}} religious persecutions,{{cite news|last1=Abi-Habib|first1=Maria|title=Iraq's Christian Minority Feels Militant Threat|url=http://online.wsj.com/articles/iraqs-christian-minority-feels-militant-threat-1403826576|accessdate=6 July 2014|work=[[The Wall Street Journal]]|date=26 June 2014|subscription=yes|via=Google}} child recruitment for militant purposes,{{cite news|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140714145246/http://www.clarionproject.org/news/armed-children-young-9-patrolling-streets-mosul|title=Armed Children as Young as 9 Patrolling Streets of Mosul|date=3 July 2014|publisher=The Clarion Project|accessdate=9 July 2014}} mass rapes and slavery,{{cite news|last1=Wood|first1=Paul|title=Islamic State: Yazidi women tell of sex-slavery trauma|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-30573385|accessdate=4 January 2015|publisher=BBC News}}{{cite web|last=Susskind|first=Yifat|title=Under Isis, Iraqi women again face an old nightmare: violence and repression|url=http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2014/jul/03/isis-iraqi-women-rape-violence-repression|date=3 July 2014|website=The Guardian|accessdate=17 July 2014}} attacks on press members,{{Cite news | last = Al Fares | first = Zaid | date = 5 September 2014 | title = The Forgotten Isis Beheadings: The World Mourns Steven Sotloff, but who Remembers Bassam al-Rayes? | url = http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/forgotten-isis-beheadings-world-mourns-steven-sotloff-who-remembers-bassam-al-raies-1464138 | newspaper = [[International Business Times UK]] | accessdate = 17 December 2014 }} beheadings,{{cite web|url=http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2014/october/help-identify-individuals-traveling-overseas-for-combat|title=FBI — Help Identify Individuals Traveling Overseas for Combat|work=FBI}} destruction of cultural/religious heritage{{cite web|url=http://www.reuters.com/video/2014/11/02/iraqs-heritage-needs-protection-from-isl?videoId=346781460|title=Iraq's heritage needs protection from Islamic State - UNESCO|agency=Reuters}} and organ trafficking.{{cite web|url=http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/security/2014/12/islamic-state-financing-funding-human-trafficking-extortion.html#|title=Islamic State reaps profits from organ trafficking - Al-Monitor: the Pulse of the Middle East|work=Al-Monitor}} By July 2012, the human rights group [[Women Under Siege]] had documented over 100 cases of rape and [[sexual assault]] during the conflict, with many of these crimes believed to be perpetrated by the Shabiha and other pro-government militias. Victims included men, women, and children, with about 80% of the known victims being women and girls.{{cite web|url=http://www.womenundersiegeproject.org/blog/entry/the-ultimate-assault-charting-syrias-use-of-rape-to-terrorize-its-people|title=The ultimate assault: Charting Syria's use of rape to terrorize its people|publisher=Women Under Siege|date=11 July 2012|accessdate=27 August 2012}} Criminal networks have been used by both the government and the opposition during the conflict. Facing international sanctions, the Syrian government relied on criminal organizations to smuggle goods and money in and out of the country. The economic downturn caused by the conflict and sanctions also led to lower wages for Shabiha members. In response, some Shabiha members began stealing civilian properties, and engaging in kidnappings. Rebel forces sometimes relied on criminal networks to obtain weapons and supplies. Black market weapon prices in Syria's neighboring countries have significantly increased since the start of the conflict. To generate funds to purchase arms, some rebel groups have turned towards extortion, stealing, and kidnapping. ===Cultural heritage=== {{main|List of heritage sites damaged during Syrian civil war}} The civil war has caused significant damage to Syria's cultural heritage, including [[World Heritage Site]]s. Destruction of antiquities has been caused by [[shell (projectile)|shelling]], army entrenchment, and [[looting]] at various [[tell]]s, museums, and monuments.Cunliffe, Emma. [http://ghn.globalheritagefund.com/uploads/documents/document_2107.pdf "Damage to the Soul: Syria's cultural heritage in conflict"]. [[Durham University]] and the [[Global Heritage Fund]]. 1 May 2012. A group called [[Syrian archaeological heritage under threat|Syrian Archaeological Heritage Under Threat]] is monitoring and recording the destruction in an attempt to create a list of heritage sites damaged during the war and gain global support for the protection and preservation of [[Syro-Palestinian archaeology|Syrian archaeology]] and architecture.Fisk, Robert. [http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/commentators/fisk/robert-fisk-syrias-ancient-treasures-pulverised-8007768.html "Syria's ancient treasures pulverised"]. ''The Independent''. 5 August 2012. UNESCO listed all six Syria's [[World Heritage site]]s as endangered but direct assessment of damage is not possible. It is known that the [[Old City of Aleppo]] was heavily damaged during battles being fought within the district, while [[Palmyra]] and [[Crac des Chevaliers]] suffered minor damage. Illegal digging is considered a grave danger, and hundreds of Syrian antiquities, including some from Palmyra, appeared in Lebanon. Three archeological museums are known to have been looted; in Raqqa some artifacts seem to have been destroyed by foreign Islamists due to religious objections.{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/17/world/middleeast/syrian-war-takes-heavy-toll-at-a-crossroad-of-cultures.html|title=Syrian War Takes Heavy Toll at a Crossroad of Cultures|date=2014-04-16|accessdate=2014-04-18|work=The New York Times|first=Anne|last=Barnard}} The war has produced its own particular artwork. A late Summer 2013 exhibition in London at the [[P21 Gallery]] was able to show some of this work.{{cite news|author=David Batty |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jun/22/syria-art-smuggled-exhibition-london-uk |title=Syrian art smuggled from the midst of civil war to show in London |work=The Guardian |date=22 June 2013}} ==Spillover== {{main|Spillover from the Syrian Civil War}} With porous borders with most of its neighbors, the fighting has spilled over them, causing fears of a regional war. In June 2014, members of the [[Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant]] (ISIL) crossed the border from Syria into northern [[Iraq]], and have [[Northern Iraq offensive (June 2014)|taken control]] of large swaths of Iraqi territory as the [[Iraqi Army]] abandoned its positions. The Syrian Civil War has led to incidents of sectarian violence in [[North Governorate|northern Lebanon]] between supporters and opponents of the Syrian government, and armed clashes between Sunnis and Alawites in [[Tripoli, Lebanon|Tripoli]].{{cite news|url=http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/24/world/middleeast/syrian-war-plays-out-along-a-street-in-lebanon.html|title=Syrian War Plays Out Along a Street in Lebanon|work=The New York Times|date=24 August 2012|first=Damien|last=Cave}} Fighting between rebels and government forces has spilled into Lebanon on several occasions. The fight between ISIL and the Kurds in the town of Kobani on the Turkish border has led to rioting throughout Turkey and to brief {{cite web|url=http://rt.com/news/193844-protests-turkey-isis-kurdish/|title=Tear gas, clashes, fatality: Anti-ISIS rally in Turkey turns violent (PHOTOS)|publisher=|accessdate=14 October 2014}} occupations of a number of parliament buildings in Western Europe. ==See also== {{Portal|Syrian civil war}} {{div col||20em}} * [[Syrian Crisis of 1957]] * [[List of civil wars]] * [[List of modern conflicts in the Middle East]] * [[List of ongoing military conflicts]] * [[List of wars by death toll]] * [[List of wars involving Iran]] * [[List of wars involving Syria]] {{div col end}} ==References== {{reflist|25em}} ==Further reading== * {{cite journal |last=Hinnebusch |first=Raymond |year=2012 |title=Syria: From 'Authoritarian Upgrading' to Revolution? |journal=[[International Affairs (journal)|International Affairs]] |volume=88 |issue=1 |pages=95–113 |doi=10.1111/j.1468-2346.2012.01059.x }} * {{cite journal |last=International Crisis Group |title=Popular Protest in North Africa and the Middle East (VII): The Syrian Regimes Slow-Motion Suicide |journal=Middle East/North Africa Report N°109 |format=PDF |date=13 July 2011 |url= http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/Middle%20East%20North%20Africa/Iraq%20Syria%20Lebanon/Syria/109%20Popular%20Protest%20in%20North%20Africa%20and%20the%20Middle%20East%20VII%20--%20The%20Syrian%20Regimes%20Slow-motion%20Suicide.pdf |accessdate=22 July 2011}} * {{cite journal |title=The Syrian Uprising of 2011: Why the Asad Regime Is Likely to Survive to 2013 |first=Joshua |last=Landis |doi=10.1111/j.1475-4967.2012.00524.x |journal=Middle East Policy |volume=19 |issue=1 |pages=72–84 |year=2012 }} * {{cite book |editor-last=Lawson |editor-first=Fred Haley |date=1 February 2010 |title=Demystifying Syria |url=http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/Demystifying-Syria.php |publisher=Saqi |isbn=978-0-86356-654-7 }} * Rashdan, Abdelrahman. [http://www.onislam.net/english/politics/asia/456316-syrians-crushed-in-a-complex-international-game.html Syrians Crushed in a Complex International Game.] ''OnIslam.net.'' 21 March 2012. Retrieved 28 May 2012. * [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]] (2014) SIPRI Yearbook 2014's [http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2014/01 Aspects of the conflict in Syria] Retrieved 20 January 2015 * {{cite book |last=Van Dam |first=Nikolaos |url=http://www.themontrealreview.com/2009/The-struggle-for-power-in-Syria-Nikolaos-van-Dam.php |title=The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Asad and the Ba'ath Party |publisher=I. B. Tauris |date=15 July 2011 |isbn=1-84885-760-8 }} * {{cite book |last=Wright |first=Robin |title=Dreams and Shadows: The Future of the Middle East |location=New York|publisher=Penguin Press |year=2008 |isbn=1-59420-111-0 |pages=212–261 }} * {{cite book |last=Ziadeh |first=Radwan |title=Power and Policy in Syria: Intelligence Services, Foreign Relations and Democracy in the Modern Middle East |year=2011 |location=London|publisher=I. B. Tauris |isbn=978-1-84885-434-5 }} ==External links== {{Sister project links|wikt=no|commons=Category:Syrian Civil War (2011-present)|b=no|n=Category:2011 Syria anti-government protests|q=no|s=no|v=no|voy=no|display=the Syrian civil war}} ;Interviews *[http://nation.foxnews.com/2013/09/18/fox-news-exclusive-interview-syrian-president-bashar-al-assad Fox News exclusive interview with Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad] [[Fox News]], 18 September 2013 *[http://www.presidentassad.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=307&Itemid=468 Interview with Bashar Assad: 'In the End, a Lie Is a Lie'] [[Der Spiegel]], 7 October 2013 *[http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/spiegel-interview-with-syrian-president-bashar-assad-a-926456.html President Bashar al-Assad’s interview with Agence France Presse AFP 20-01-2014] 20 January 2014 *A discussion of the [http://www.monitor.upeace.org/innerpg.cfm?id_article=1017 causes of the civil war] at the ''[[United Nations University for Peace]]''. *[http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2013/12/al-qaeda-leader-syria-speaks-al-jazeera-20131218155917935989.html First ever broadcast interview with Jabhat al Nusra founder Abu Mohammed al-Joulani] ;Supranational government bodies *[http://www.fao.org/emergencies/crisis/syria/en/ FAO – Syria crisis] ;Human rights bodies *[http://www.icrc.org/eng/where-we-work/middle-east/syria/index.jsp The ICRC in Syria], [[International Committee of the Red Cross]] ; Research Institutes * [[Stockholm International Peace Research Institute]]'s [http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2014/01 SIPRI Yearbook 2014] ;Media *[http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-17258397 Syria Conflict] at ''[[BBC News]]'' *[http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/world/syrian-uprising-one-year-of-bloodshed/index.html Syrian uprising: A year in turmoil] at ''[[The Washington Post]]'' *[http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/syria-pulse Syria Pulse] collected news and commentary at ''[[Al Monitor]]'' *[http://archive.is/20120906140521/http://www.nowlebanon.com/NewsArticleDetails.aspx?ID=253828 Latest Syria developments] at ''[[NOW Lebanon]]'' *{{Guardian topic|world/syria|Syria}} *[http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/syria/index.html Syria] collected news and commentary at ''[[The New York Times]]'' *[http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/syria/ Syria news, all the latest and breaking Syria news] at ''[[The Daily Telegraph]]'' *[http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/syria/ Syria] collected coverage at ''[[Al Jazeera English]]'' *The battle for Syria (documentary films). Sources: TV news air footage (video documentary + English subtitles {{YouTube|2iAnhGCaG6s|The battle for Syria}}, official video documentary and the official text of the [http://www.vesti.ru/doc.html?id=908640]).[[VGTRK]] *[http://www.tahrir-syria.info] Hizb ut-Tahrir Syria Media Office *Syrian diary (documentary films). Sources: TV news air footage (video documentary + English subtitles {{YouTube|M5MQZ8azNx0| Syrian diary}}), official video documentary of the [http://www.vesti.ru/videos?vid=475233].[[VGTRK]] {{Syrian civil war}} {{Arab Spring}} {{Syria topics}} {{Ongoing military conflicts}} {{Middle East conflicts}} {{Post-Cold War Asian conflicts}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Syrian Civil War}} [[Category:Syrian Civil War| ]] [[Category:2010s civil wars]] [[Category:2011 in Syria]] [[Category:2012 in Syria]] [[Category:2013 in Syria]] [[Category:2014 in Syria]] [[Category:2015 in Syria]] [[Category:Arab Winter by country]] [[Category:Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Asia]] [[Category:Conflicts in 2011]] [[Category:Conflicts in 2012]] [[Category:Conflicts in 2013]] [[Category:Conflicts in 2014]] [[Category:Conflicts in 2015]] [[Category:Ongoing conflicts]] [[Category:Politics of Syria]] [[Category:Protests in Syria]] [[Category:Rebellions in Syria]] [[Category:Wars involving Bahrain]] [[Category:Wars involving Hezbollah]] [[Category:Wars involving Iran]] [[Category:Wars involving Iraq]] [[Category:Wars involving Jordan]] [[Category:Wars involving Libya]] [[Category:Wars involving Qatar]] [[Category:Wars involving Saudi Arabia]] [[Category:Wars involving Syria]] [[Category:Wars involving Turkey]] [[Category:Wars involving the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant]] [[Category:Wars involving the United Arab Emirates]] [[Category:Wars involving the United States]]", "Template:Southern Steel team#REDIRECT [[Template:Southern Steel team nav]]", "Tommy Traddles'''Tommy Traddles''' may refer to: *Tommy Traddles, a fictional character in the 1850 Charles Dickens novel ''David Copperfield'' and its 1969 film adaptation; see [[David Copperfield (novel)]], [[David Copperfield (1969 film)]], and [[List of Dickensian characters]] *{{USS|Tommy Traddles|1906}}, a United States Navy patrol boat acquired in 1917 but never commissioned {{disambig}}", "Aloysius Katsina-Alu#REDIRECT [[A. I. Katsina-Alu]]", "Buckhorn cholla#REDIRECT [[Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa]]", "Template:Beloslav Municipality Labelled Map{{Image label begin|image=Map of Beloslav municipality (Varna Province).png|width={{{width|264}}}|float={{{float|none}}}}} {{Image label small|x=1.85|y=1.32|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=[[Image:Capital city marker.svg|13px|center]]'''[[Varna Municipality|Varna]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.80|y=1.20|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Aksakovo|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.6|y=1.12|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Aksakovo}} {{Image label small|x=1.52|y=1.62|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Avren, Varna Province|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.55|y=1.70|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Avren}} {{Image label small|x=1.60|y=1.40|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Beloslav|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.40|y=1.48|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Beloslav]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=2.00|y=2.35|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Byala, Varna Province|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=2.08|y=2.35|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Byala}} {{Image label small|x=0.95|y=1.0|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Vetrino|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=0.62|y=0.92|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Vetrino}} {{Image label small|x=1.22|y=0.73|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Valchi Dol|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.00|y=0.65|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Valchi Dol}} {{Image label small|x=1.70|y=2.00|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Dolni Chiflik|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.35|y=2.08|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Dolni Chiflik}} {{Image label small|x=1.27|y=1.30|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Devnya|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.16|y=1.22|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Devnya}} {{Image label small|x=0.80|y=1.82|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Dalgopol|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=0.65|y=1.90|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Dalgopol}} {{Image label small|x=0.97|y=1.42|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Provadiya|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=0.60|y=1.50|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Provadiya}} {{Image label small|x=1.32|y=0.95|scale={{{width|100}}}|text='''[[Suvorovo|]]'''}} {{Image label small|x=1.35|y=0.87|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Suvorovo}} {{Image label small|x=0.45|y=2.77|scale={{{width|100}}}|text=Beloslav Municipality within Varna Province}} {{Image label end}} [[Category:Bulgaria municipality templates]] ", "Template:PDB Gallery/2960{{Gallery |lines=4 |Image:PDB_1vd4_EBI.jpg|'''1vd4''': Solution structure of the zinc finger domain of TFIIE alpha |Image:PDB_2rnr_EBI.png|'''2rnr''': Solution structure of the complex between TFIIE alpha C-terminal acidic domain and TFIIH p62 PH domain }}", "2007 CAF Beach Soccer Championship{{Infobox International Football Competition | tourney_name = CAF Beach Soccer Championship | year = 2007 | other_titles = 2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup qualification (CAF) | image = | size = | caption = | country = South Africa | dates = 3 July - 8 July 2007 | num_teams = 8 | confederations = 1 | venues = 1 | cities = 1 | champion_other = {{beachsoccer|Nigeria}} | count = 1 | second_other = {{beachsoccer|Senegal}} | third_other = {{beachsoccer|Ivory Coast}} | fourth_other = {{beachsoccer|RSA}} | matches = 17 | goals = 174 | attendance = | top_scorer = | player = | prevseason = [[2006 CAF Beach Soccer Championship|2006]] | nextseason = [[2008 CAF Beach Soccer Championship|2008]] }} The '''2007 [[Confederation of African Football|CAF]] [[Beach Soccer]] championship''' also known as the '''2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup qualifiers for (CAF)''' was the second beach soccer championship for [[Africa]], held in July 2007, in [[Durban]], [[South Africa]]. [[Nigeria national beach soccer team|Nigeria]] won the championship, with [[Senegal national beach soccer team|Senegal]] finishing second. The two moved on to play in the [[2007 FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup]] in [[Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]] from November 2 - November 11.http://www.rsssf.com/tablesf/fifabeach07.html ==Participating nations== *{{beachsoccer|Cameroon}} *{{beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} *{{beachsoccer|Egypt}} *{{beachsoccer|Ivory Coast}} *{{beachsoccer|Mozambique}} *{{beachsoccer|Nigeria}} *{{beachsoccer|Senegal}} *{{beachsoccer|South Africa}} ==Group stage== ===Group A=== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;" |- !width=165|Team !width=20|Pts !width=20|Pld !width=20|W !width=20|L !width=20|GF !width=20|GA !width=20|GD |- align=center style="background:#ccffcc;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Côte d'Ivoire}} |'''9'''||3||3||0||21||8||+13 |- align=center style="background:#ccffcc;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|South Africa}} |'''6'''||3||2||1||18||15||+3 |- align=center style="background:#f5f5f5;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} |'''3'''||3||1||2||14||16||-2 |- align=center style="background:#f5f5f5;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Mozambique}} |'''0'''||3||0||3||8||21||-13 |} {{footballbox |date = 3 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Cape Verde}} |score = 6 – 5 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Mozambique}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 3 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Ivory Coast}} |score = 9 – 4 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|RSA}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 4 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Ivory Coast}} |score = 4 – 2 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 4 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|RSA}} |score = 7 – 1 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Mozambique}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 5 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Ivory Coast}} |score = 8 – 2 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Mozambique}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 5 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|South Africa}} |score = 7 – 5 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- ===Group B=== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center;" |- !width=165|Team !width=20|Pts !width=20|Pld !width=20|W !width=20|L !width=20|GF !width=20|GA !width=20|GD |- align=center style="background:#ccffcc;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Nigeria}} |'''9'''||3||3||0||24||13||+11 |- align=center style="background:#ccffcc;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Senegal}} |'''6'''||3||2||1||15||17||-2 |- align=center style="background:#f5f5f5;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Egypt}} |'''3'''||3||1||2||18||20||-2 |- align=center style="background:#f5f5f5;" |style="text-align:left;"|{{Beachsoccer|Cameroon}} |'''0'''||3||0||3||9||16||-7 |} {{footballbox |date = 3 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Nigeria}} |score = 5 – 0 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Cameroon}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 3 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Senegal}} |score = 5 – 4 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Egypt}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 4 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Nigeria}} |score = 9 – 7 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Egypt}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 4 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Senegal}} |score = 4 – 3 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Cameroon}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 5 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Nigeria}} |score = 10 – 6 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Senegal}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- {{footballbox |date = 5 July 2007 |time = |team1 = {{Beachsoccer-rt|Egypt}} |score = 7 – 6 |report = |team2 = {{Beachsoccer|Cameroon}} |goals1 = |goals2 = |stadium = Durban |attendance = |referee = }}
    ---- ==Knockout stage== {{Round4-with third |7 July 2007|'''{{Beachsoccer|Senegal}}'''|'''9'''|{{Beachsoccer|Ivory Coast}}|3 |7 July 2007|'''{{Beachsoccer|Nigeria}}'''|'''7'''|{{Beachsoccer|RSA}}|6 |8 July 2007|'''{{Beachsoccer|Nigeria}}'''|'''6'''|{{Beachsoccer|Senegal}}|5 |8 July 2007|'''{{Beachsoccer|Ivory Coast}}'''|'''2'''|{{Beachsoccer|RSA}}|0 |widescore=yes}} {{2TeamBracket | RD1=5th/6th Place match | RD1-seed1=3A | RD1-team1={{beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} | RD1-score1=2 | RD1-seed2=3B | RD1-team2='''{{beachsoccer|Egypt}}''' | RD1-score2='''8''' }} ==Winners== {{winners|beachsoccer|(2007) FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup
    Qualification (CAF) Winners:|Nigeria|First}} ==Final standings== {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center" !Rank !Team |- bgcolor="gold" || '''1''' ||align="left"| '''{{Beachsoccer|Nigeria}}''' |- bgcolor="silver" || '''2''' ||align="left"| '''{{Beachsoccer|Senegal}}''' |-bgcolor="#CC9966" || '''3''' ||align="left"| '''{{Beachsoccer|Ivory Coast}}''' |- || 4 ||align="left"| {{Beachsoccer|RSA}} |- || 5 ||align="left"| {{Beachsoccer|Egypt}} |- || 6 ||align="left"| {{Beachsoccer|Cape Verde}} |- || 7 ||align="left"| {{Beachsoccer|Cameroon}} |- || 8 ||align="left"| {{Beachsoccer|Mozambique}} |} == References == {{reflist}} {{DEFAULTSORT:2007 Caf Beach Soccer Championship}} [[Category:2007 in African football|Beach Soccer Championship]] [[Category:FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup qualification (CAF)]] [[Category:International association football competitions hosted by South Africa|2007]] [[Category:2007 in beach soccer]]
    ", "Ambre#REDIRECT [[Arrufiac]]", "Wikipedia:Articles for deletion/Sargasso Records", "Charles Hershfield{{Infobox engineer |image = Charles Hershfield.jpg |image_size = |caption = |name = Charles Hershfield |birth_date = December 24, 1910 |birth_place = [[Winnipeg]], [[Manitoba]] Canada |death_date = March 11, 1990 |death_place = [[Toronto]], [[Ontario]] Canada |education = B.Sc., [[Civil Engineering]],
    [[University of Manitoba]] 1930Bournival, Pierre (1970). "Authors". The Engineering Journal, 53(1) p. 6. M.Sc. [[Civil Engineering]],
    [[University of Toronto]] 1950 |spouse = Janet Hershfield |practice_name = [http://morrisonhershfield.com/Pages/default.aspx/ Morrison Hershfield] |significant_projects = Stratford Shakespearean Festival Theatre, assisted with complex roof design, 1957.
    ''Engineers Honored''. The Globe and Mail, October 5, 1982, p. F4. Ontario Pavilion Building at [[Expo 67]], designed complex roofing system, 1967. |significant_awards = Elected into the [[Engineering Institute of Canada Fellows]] (F.E.I.C), 1974.
    Association of [[Professional Engineers Ontario]], Engineering Medal, 1982.''Engineering Awards for 1982: Engineering is for People''. The Globe and Mail, October 7, 1982, p. B9. }} '''Charles Hershfield''', B.Sc., M.A.Sc, F.E.I.C, P.Eng. (1910–1990) was widely recognized by the engineering community and known for his innovative [[structural engineering]] solutions, as a senior assistant engineer and [[lieutenant]] with the [[Department of National Defence (Canada)|Department of National Defense]], a professor at the [[University of Toronto]], as co-founder of the North American firm [[Morrison Hershfield]], and as a prolific author. He was a lifelong advocate of education and the engineering profession. ==Early life and education== Hershfield' parents Aaron and Molly Hershfield left Teofipol, [[Ukraine]] in the mid-1890s for [[Manitoba, Canada]] in search of greater opportunities and in the hopes of starting a family. On December 24, 1910 their son Charles Hershfield was born. As a child and later in his teens, Hershfield's interests resided in music, [[baseball]], [[carpentry]], and [[mechanical engineering]]. He attended St. John’s High School in [[Winnipeg]], Manitoba, and even from a young age, highly valued his education. Hershfield later studied engineering at the [[University of Manitoba]]. Working with two of his classmates, H.F. Peters and W. Gruber, Hershfield submitted the thesis “Some Tests of Welded Joints”. Hershfield graduated in 1930 with the degree of [[Bachelor of Science]] in [[civil engineering]]. During the summer periods as an undergraduate Hershfield worked for the [[Dominion Bridge Company]] in Winnipeg. Upon graduation and until 1932, in conjunction with the Winnipeg City Engineer, he was involved with structural design of bridges, viaducts and subways. Several years later Hershfield continued his education and received the degree of [[Master of Applied Science]] from the University of Toronto in 1950. His master’s thesis was titled “Series Expansion of Joint Rotations for the Analysis of Rigidly Framed Structures “. ==Working life== In 1935 Hershfield moved to [[Toronto, Ontario]] and until 1941 was employed with Standard Iron and Steel Works where his skills and services were focused in [[structural design]], estimating, contracting, detailing and supervision of the fabrication and erection of steel structures. From 1941 to 1943 he was a staff member of the [[Canadian Department of National Defense]], Naval Service, Works and Building Branch as Senior Assistant Engineer, with the rank of Lieutenant. His work during this time included structural design on naval shore establishments including shops, storage facilities, training buildings, and drill halls, of wide variety as to size and materials of construction. After leaving the naval service in 1943, Hershfield joined the staff of the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Toronto. Hershfield taught a variety of courses related to structural engineering and supervised many graduate students. He was also principal instructor in structural engineering in the [[School of Architecture]] at University of Toronto.“OAA Periodical: Charles Hershfield P.Eng.’’. (March/April 1982). Ontario Association of Architects, p. 5. In 1946 Hershfield, along with [[Carson Morrison]], Joe Millman, and Mark Huggins, responded to the post-war building boom by founding the engineering consulting firm Morrison Hershfield Millman and Huggins. The firm today exists under the name [[Morrison Hershfield]], with offices across North America specializing in multidisciplinary engineering and related expertise.{{cite web|url=http://www.morrisonhershfield.com/aboutus/Pages/OurHistory.aspx|title=Morrison Hershfield History|publisher=Morrison Hershfield|accessdate=2011-01-11}} Hershfield retired from teaching at the University of Toronto in 1976 after 31 years of service but continued to work closely with Morrison Hershfield almost up to the time of his death. ==Notable projects== * Assisted with complex structural design of the roof for the [[Stratford Shakespeare Festival]] Theatre, [[Stratford, Ontario]] (1957) * Designed the complex structural roofing system for the Ontario Pavilion Building at [[Expo 67]], Montreal, Quebec (1967) * Assisted with the expansion of the Toronto [[Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto|Mount Sinai Hospital]], Toronto, [[Ontario]] * University of Toronto Medical Science Building, Toronto, Ontario ==Awards and achievements== * Elected to the grade of Partner with the Engineering Institute of Canada, 1955. * Member of the Publications Committee, for the Engineering Journal, 1970–74. * Elected to [[EIC Fellow|Fellow]] of the [[Engineering Institute of Canada]], 1974.{{cite web|url=http://www.eic-ici.ca/fellows.html |title=EIC Fellows |publisher=[[Engineering Institute of Canada]] |accessdate={{Format date|2011|2|23}}}} * Consulting Engineer Designation, [[Association of Professional Engineers]], 1974. * Member of the Committee of Examiners, Ontario Association of Architects, 1974–82 * Member of the [[Canadian Standards Association]] Standards Policy Board, 1977–78. * Requalifed as a Designated Consulting Engineer, Association of Professional Engineers, 1979. * Awarded the Engineering Medal by the Association of [[Professional Engineers Ontario]], 1982. * Served as a Structural Engineer on the OAA Committee of Examiners, 1982. * Upon his death, the University of Toronto set up the Charles Hershfield Memorial Scholarship fund to acknowledge Hershfield's significant accomplishments as a structural engineer and professor. This scholarship is given to outstanding graduate students in structural engineering, established in 1990.Soberman, R.M. (1991). “Charles Hershfield Memorial Scholarship Fund”. University of Toronto: Annual Report 1991, p. 14. ==Technical papers== * '''Roof Structure of New Theatre for Stratford Shakespearean Festival''': a proposal on the Stratford Shakespearean Festival Theatre roof based on analytical methods and techniques used, 1956–1957. * '''One Cycle Moment Distribution for Structural Analysis''': Presented in a meeting to the Engineering Institute of Canada, 1959.{{cite journal |last1=Hershfield |first1=Charles |year=1959 |title=One Cycle Moment Distribution for Structural Analysis |journal=The Engineering Journal |volume=3 |issue=2 |pages=9–15 |publisher=The Engineering Institute of Canada}} * '''Exploiting the Structural Potentials of Woven Fabrics''': A paper regarding an increase in the variety of woven fabrics available and a corresponding increase in the possibilities of using them to great advantage to form parts or all of the structure for certain types of buildings, 1967. * '''Civil Engineering Education in Canada, Present and Future''': Written with colleague G.W. Heinke at the University of Toronto and also a member of the Engineering Institute of Canada. This paper reviews a study taken place in 1968, looking at the opinions of all U of T department staff, present and former students, practising engineers from industry and government, as well as staff and administrators from a variety of technological institutes, Paper presented at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Engineering Institute of Canada, Vancouver, September 1969. Published in the Engineering Journal in January 1970.{{cite journal |last1=Hershfield |first1=Charles |last2=Heinke |first2=G.W. |year=1970 |title=Civil Engineering Education in Canada, Present and Future |journal=The Engineering Journal |volume=53 |issue=1 |pages=7–11 |publisher=The Engineering Institute of Canada}} ==See also== *[[Carson Morrison]] *[[Morrison Hershfield]] ==External links== *[http://www.morrisonhershfield.com/Pages/default.aspx/ Morrison Hershfield Website] *[http://www.utoronto.ca/ University of Toronto Website] *[http://www.csa.ca/cm/ca/en/home/ CSA Website] *[http://www.peo.on.ca/ Professional Engineers Ontario Website] *[http://www.oaa.on.ca/ Ontario Association of Architects Website] ==References== {{Reflist}} {{Persondata | NAME = Hershfield, Charles | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = Canadian engineer, professor and author | DATE OF BIRTH = 1910-12-24 | PLACE OF BIRTH = Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada | DATE OF DEATH = 1990-03-11 | PLACE OF DEATH = Toronto, Ontario, Canada }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Hershfield, Charles}} [[Category:1910 births]] [[Category:1990 deaths]] [[Category:Fellows of the Engineering Institute of Canada]] [[Category:University of Toronto faculty]] [[Category:Canadian civil engineers]]
    ", "Charles Fairfax (antiquary)'''Charles Fairfax''' (1597–1673) was an English antiquary and genealogist. ==Early life== Fairfax was born at [[Denton, Yorkshire]] on 5 March 1597, and was the seventh and third surviving son of [[Thomas Fairfax, 1st Lord Fairfax of Cameron|Sir Thomas (afterwards first Lord) Fairfax]]. His two surviving brothers (four others were killed fighting in 1631) were [[Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron|Ferdinando]] and [[Henry Fairfax (academic)| Henry]]. He entered [[Trinity College, Cambridge]] on 5 October 1611,{{acad|id= FRFS611C|name=Fairfax, Charles}} and was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn on 9 March 1618. About 1627 he married Mary, sole heiress of the Breary family, of [[Scough Hall]] in the forest of Knaresborough and Menston. The counsellor and annalist of his family, the rest of his life was spent mainly on his family tree, at [[Menston]], Yorkshire. At Menston he was within a few miles of his paternal home at Denton. ==Civil war== A few days before the [[battle of Marston Moor]] (2 July 1644) Cromwell and other parliamentary leaders held a conference at Fairfax's house at Menston around a table now at [[Farnley Hall, Yorkshire]]. While his nephew, [[Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron|Sir Thomas]], afterwards the third Lord Fairfax, did much to preserve the minster and archives at York, Charles was engaged with another antiquary, [[Roger Dodsworth]], in the search for and rescue of books and documents. In 1646 he was appointed by his brother, [[Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron|Ferdinando]], the second Lord Fairfax, as steward of the courts at [[Ripon]], and during the later years of the Commonwealth was induced to take service as a Colonel of Foot, a position which he held in [[George Monck]]'s army in Scotland at the time of the [[English Restoration|Restoration]] of 1660. During Monck's march into Yorkshire he was appointed governor of the town of [[Kingston-upon-Hull]]. This office he held only about a year and then retired to Menston with a pension, granted him by Charles II out of the customs at Hull. ==Death and family== He died in Menston in December 1673. The registers of Fewston parish church record his burial, and also that of his wife in 1657; they were both buried in the Fairfax transept of the parish church at [[Otley]], where there was a mural monument to their memory. Among his children were twin brothers, John, a captain in the army, and [[Henry Fairfax (dean)|Henry]], a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, and dean of Norwich, who were so alike as to be indistinguishable by their own mother. ==Written work and collections== Fairfax wrote a work in manuscript entitled ''Analecta Fairfaxiana''. It contains pedigrees, carefully written and blazoned on vellum, of all the branches of the Fairfax family, and of many of the families connected with it, interspersed with many genealogical and literary notes, and about fifty anagrams, epigrams, and elegies in Latin. It went to [[Leeds Castle, Kent]] and then passed into the library of Sir [[Thomas Phillipps]]. Along with several related volumes, tt was acquired by Leeds University Library in 1993.{{cite web|url=http://archiveshub.ac.uk/data/gb206brothertoncollectionmsyks2|title=Analecta Fairfaxiana|publisher=Archives Hub|accessdate=31 December 2011}} By his will, dated 1672, Fairfax bequeathed manuscripts to [[Lincoln's Inn]].{{cite DNB|wstitle=Fairfax, Charles}} ==References== {{reflist}} {{DNB|wstitle=Fairfax, Charles}} {{onesource|date=February 2011}} {{Persondata | NAME = Fairfax, Charles | ALTERNATIVE NAMES = | SHORT DESCRIPTION = English antiquary | DATE OF BIRTH = 1597 | PLACE OF BIRTH = | DATE OF DEATH = 1673 | PLACE OF DEATH = }} {{DEFAULTSORT:Fairfax, Charles}} [[Category:1597 births]] [[Category:1673 deaths]] [[Category:People from Yorkshire]] [[Category:Alumni of Trinity College, Cambridge]] [[Category:Roundheads]] [[Category:17th-century English writers]] [[Category:English antiquarians]] [[Category:English genealogists]] [[Category:Fairfax family|Charles]] [[Category:Members of Lincoln's Inn]] [[Category:17th-century antiquarians]]", "Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane{{Infobox film | name = Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane | image = | image_size = | caption = Film poster | director = [[Girish Karnad]]
    [[B. V. Karanth]] | producer = B. M. Venkatesh
    [[Chandulal Jain]] | writer = [[S. L. Bhyrappa]] | screenplay = Girish Karnad
    B. V. Karanth | based on = {{based on|''Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane'' |[[S. L. Bhyrappa]]}} | narrator = | starring = [[Nasiruddin Shah]]
    Lakshmi Krishnamurthy
    Paula Lindsay
    [[T. S. Nagabharana]]
    [[Om Puri]] | music = [[Bhaskar Chandavarkar]] | cinematography = [[A. K. Bir]] | editing = P. Bhakthavathsalam | distributor = Maharaja Movies | released = 1977 | runtime = 143 minutes | country = India | language = Kannada | budget = }} '''''Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane''''' ({{lang-kn|ತಬ್ಬಲಿಯು ನೀನಾದೆ ಮಗನೆ}}) was a 1977 [[India]]n [[Kannada language]] film directed by [[Girish Karnad]] and [[B. V. Karanth]], with [[Nasiruddin Shah]], Lakshmi Krishnamurthy, Manu and Paula Lindsay in pivotal roles. The film is based on [[S. L. Bhyrappa]]'s Kannada novel of the same name. The Hindi version of the film was called ''[[Godhuli]]''.{{Sfn|DIFF|1978|p=101}} At the [[25th National Film Awards]], the film was awarded the [[National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Kannada|Best Feature Film in Kannada]].{{cite web |title= Tabbaliyu Neenade Magane (1977) |url= http://kannadamoviesinfo.wordpress.com/2013/05/03/thabbaliyu-neenade-magane-1977/ |publisher= ''kannadamoviesinfo.com'' |accessdate= 29 March 2014}}{{cite web|url=http://iffi.nic.in/Dff2011/Frm25thNFAAward.aspx|title=25th National Film Awards|publisher=[[International Film Festival of India]]|accessdate=October 4, 2011}}{{cite web|url=http://dff.nic.in/2011/25th_nff_1977.pdf|title=25th National Film Awards (PDF)|publisher=[[Directorate of Film Festivals]]|accessdate=October 4, 2011}} ==Cast== * [[Nasiruddin Shah]] as Venkataramana Shastri * Lakshmi Krishnamurthy as Thaiyavva * Manu as Kalingegowda * Paula Lindsay as Lydia * [[T. S. Nagabharana]] * [[Om Puri]] ==Plot== The movie explores the cultural problems experienced by an American woman, newly married to an Indian, adjusting to Indian norms and customs. It depicts a modern man who studies agriculture in the United States, returns to India with an American wife with their different views. The theme is one alienation from the fellow human beings. == References == {{reflist}} * {{cite book|ref=harv|title=Indian Cinema|author=DIFF|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1mx1AAAAIAAJ|year=1978|publisher=Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting}} {{National Film Award Best Feature Film Kannada}} [[Category:Indian films]] [[Category:1970s Kannada-language films]] [[Category:1977 films]] [[Category:Filmfare Best Kannada Movie Award winners]] {{1970s-Kannada-film-stub}}
    ", "Caraffa#redirect[[Carafa]]", "Street Skateboarding#REDIRECT [[Skateboarding]] {{R from other capitalisation}}", "C. A. Tripp#REDIRECT [[Clarence Arthur Tripp]]", "Punggol MRT/LRT Station{{hatnote|"Punggol MRT Station" and "Punggol LRT Station" redirect here.}} {{Infobox station | name=[[File:MRT Singapore Destination 7.png|25px]]
    {{SMRT-SLRT code 2I/C|NE|17|PT|C}}
    Punggol MRT/LRT Station
    Stesen MRT/LRT Punggol | type=[[Rapid transit]] / [[Light rail]] | image=Punggol_MRT-LRT_Station.jpg | image_size=300px | image_caption=Concourse level of Punggol MRT station. | address=70 Punggol Central
    Singapore 828868 | coordinates={{Coord|1.405264|103.902097|type:railwaystation_region:SG|format=dms}} | line={{rail color box|system=SMRT|line=North East}}{{rail color box|system=SLRT|line=Punggol}} | other=Bus, Taxi | structure=Underground (North East Line)
    Elevated (Punggol LRT Line) | platform=Island (North East Line)
    Double Island (Punggol LRT Line) | depth= | levels=3 | tracks=4 (2 MRT, 2 LRT)
    (excluding 1 reserved LRT trackway) | parking= | bicycle= | baggage_check= | passengers= | pass_year= | pass_percent= | pass_system= | opened=20 June 2003 (North East Line)
    29 January 2005 (Punggol LRT Line)(East Loop)
    29 June 2014 (West Loop) | closed= | rebuilt= | electrified= | ADA=Yes | code={{SMRT-SLRT code 2I/C|NE|17|PT|C}} | operator=[[SBS Transit]] ([[ComfortDelGro]]) | owned= | zone= | former= | services={{S-rail|title=SMRT}}{{S-line|system=SMRT|line=North East|previous=Sengkang|next=}}{{S-rail-next|title=SLRT}}{{S-line|system=SLRT|line=Punggol|branch=East|previous=Damai|next=Cove|type=Riviera|type2=Riviera}}{{s-line|system=SLRT|line=Punggol|branch=West|previous=Soo Teck|next=Sam Kee|type=Samudera|type2=Samudera}} | mpassengers= | map_locator={{Superimpose| base = MRT map NEPG.svg | base_width = 300px | base_caption = North East MRT line & Punggol LRT Line | float = Red Dot.svg | float_width = 5px | float_caption = Punggol MRT/LRT Station | x = 176 | y = 42 }}}} [[Image:Ne17 Punggol platform.jpg|thumb|NEL Platform of Punggol MRT Station]] [[Image:PunggolLRTStation.jpg|thumb|LRT Platform of Punggol LRT Station]] '''Punggol MRT/LRT Station (NE17/PTC)''' is an interchange station of the [[North East MRT Line|North East Line]] and the [[Punggol LRT Line]] in [[Singapore]].{{cite web|url=http://www.sbstransit.com.sg/trpt_lrt_station_view.asp?statcode=PTC|title=Punggol LRT Station|publisher=[[SBS Transit]]|accessdate=12 November 2011}} The artwork in this station is ''Water, Landscape and Future'' by Goh Beng Kwan.{{cite web|url=http://www.sbstransit.com.sg/nel/trpt_nel_systemdetail.asp?statcode=NE17|title=Art in Transit|publisher=[[SBS Transit]]|accessdate=12 November 2011}} ==History== The station was to have been unopened with [[Potong Pasir MRT Station|Potong Pasir]], [[Buangkok MRT Station|Buangkok]] and [[Woodleigh MRT Station|Woodleigh]] MRT stations when the government gave the go ahead to build the North East Line in 1996 as Punggol 21 was still undeveloped then. But as more developments of Punggol 21 were progressively unveiled, the station was opened with the rest of the line in 2003. In 2005, a middle platform was built on the LRT Platform for services to Punggol North but plans for that were aborted and the platform was replaced with walkways. ==Station layout== {|table border=0 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3 |style="border-top:solid 1px gray;border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" rowspan=5 valign=top|'''L2
    Platform''' |style="border-top:solid 1px gray;"|Platform 1 |style="border-top:solid 1px gray;" colspan=2| {{SLRT lines|Punggol}}: Route A: West Loop Outer towards {{SLRT code|PT|C}} Punggol via [[Soo Teck LRT Station|Soo Teck]] (after 3pm Daily) (→)
    {{SLRT lines|Punggol}}: Route D: East Loop Inner towards {{SLRT code|PT|C}} Punggol via [[Cove LRT Station|Cove]] (→)
    |- |style="border-top:solid 2px black;border-right:solid 2px black;border-left:solid 2px black;border-bottom:solid 2px grey;" colspan=2 align=center|[[Island platform]], doors will open on the right |- |colspan="2"|
    Future trackway reserved for Punggol North Line (covered by granite slabs)
    |- |style="border-top:solid 2px grey;border-right:solid 2px black;border-left:solid 2px black;border-bottom:solid 2px black;" colspan=2 align=center|[[Island platform]], doors will open on the right |- |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;"|Platform 2 |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" colspan=2|{{SLRT lines|Punggol}}: Route B: West Loop Inner towards {{SLRT code|PT|C}} Punggol via [[Sam Kee LRT Station|Sam Kee]] (until 3pm Daily) (←)
    {{SLRT lines|Punggol}}: Route C: East Loop Outer towards {{SLRT code|PT|C}} Punggol via [[Damai LRT Station, Singapore|Damai]] (←)
    |- |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=50 valign=top|'''L1''' |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=100 valign=top|Main Lobby |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=550 valign=top|Faregates, Ticketing Machines, Passenger Service Centre, [[Punggol Bus Interchange]], [[Waterway Point]] (U/C). |- |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=50 valign=top|'''B1''' |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=100 valign=top|Service Level |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" width=550 valign=top|Restricted Access |- |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;" rowspan=3 valign=top|'''B2
    Platform''' |Platform A |{{SMRT lines|North East}} towards [[HarbourFront MRT Station|{{SMRT code 2I/C|NE|1|CC|29}} HarbourFront]] via {{SMRT-SLRT code 2I/C|NE|16|ST|C}} {{SMRT stations|station=Sengkang}} (→) |- |style="border-top:solid 2px black;border-right:solid 2px black;border-left:solid 2px black;border-bottom:solid 2px black;" colspan=2 align=center|[[Island platform]], doors will open on the left, right |- |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;"|Platform B |style="border-bottom:solid 1px gray;"|{{SMRT lines|North East}} towards [[HarbourFront MRT Station|{{SMRT code 2I/C|NE|1|CC|29}} HarbourFront]] via {{SMRT-SLRT code 2I/C|NE|16|ST|C}} {{SMRT stations|station=Sengkang}} (→) |} ==Transport connections== ===Rail=== {| style="text-align:centre; font-size:95%; border:1px solid black" |- ! Destination !! colspan="5" | First Train !! !! Last Train |- | || Mon – Fri || || style="text-align:center" | Sat || || style="text-align:center" | Sunday &
    Public Holiday
    || || style="text-align:center" | Daily |- ! colspan="8" style="background-color:#{{SMRT color|North East}};color:white; height:25px" | North East Line |- | to NE1 HarbourFront || style="text-align:center" | 5.42am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.42am || || style="text-align:center" | 6.03am || || style="text-align:center" | 11.28pm |- ! colspan="8" style="background-color:gray;color:white; height:25px" | Punggol LRT |- | Platform 1
    to PE7 Damai || style="text-align:center" | 5.25am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.25am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.45am || || style="text-align:center" | 12.37am |- | Platform 2
    to PE1 Cove || style="text-align:center" | 5.20am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.20am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.40am || || style="text-align:center" | 12.20am |- | Platform 1
    to PW1 Sam Kee || style="text-align:center" | 5.28am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.28am || || style="text-align:center" | 5.48am || || style="text-align:center" | 3.00pm |- | Platform 2
    to PW7 Soo Teck || style="text-align:center" | 3.00pm || || style="text-align:center" | 3.00pm || || style="text-align:center" | 3.00pm || || style="text-align:center" | 12.40am |} ==References== {{reflist}} ==External links== * [http://www.sbstransit.com.sg/nel/trpt_nel_systemdetail.asp?statcode=NE17 Official website] {{Singapore MRT stations}} {{Singapore LRT stations}} {{Punggol}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Punggol Mrt Lrt Station}} [[Category:Punggol]] [[Category:Railway stations opened in 2003]] [[Category:Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore) stations]] [[Category:Light Rail Transit (Singapore) stations]] [[Category:Terry Farrell buildings]]
    ", "Cambridge University R.U.F.C.{{about|the rugby union team|the association football team|Cambridge University A.F.C.}} {{Infobox rugby team | teamname = Cambridge University R.U.F.C. | image = Cambridge univ rugby logo.png | imagesize = 170px | union = [[Rugby Football Union]] | fullname = Cambridge University Rugby Union Football Club | nickname = | location = [[Cambridge]], [[England]] | countryflag = England | founded = {{Start date and age|1872}} | disbanded = | ground = University Football Ground,
    [[Grange Road, Cambridge|Grange Road]] | capacity = | chairman = | rugby director = | coach = | captain = | league = | season = | position = | url = www.curufc.com |pattern_la1=_white_hoops|pattern_b1=_whitehoops|pattern_ra1=_white_hoops|leftarm1=99ccff|body1=99ccff|rightarm1=99ccff|shorts1=ffffff|socks1=99ccff }} The '''Cambridge University Rugby Union Football Club''', sometimes abbrevriated "CURUFC", is the [[rugby union]] club of the [[University of Cambridge]]. The team plays [[Oxford University RFC]] in the annual [[The Varsity Match|Varsity Match]] at [[Twickenham Stadium]] every December. Cambridge players wear light blue and white hooped jerseys with a red lion crest. Many have gone on to represent their country and the [[British and Irish Lions]]; a few, most notably [[Daniel Vickerman|Dan Vickerman]], have represented Cambridge after successful international careers. Whilst at Cambridge University [[James Bevan]] became the first captain of the [[Wales national rugby union team]]. == History == Football is believed to have been introduced to Cambridge University in 1839 by [[Trinity College, Cambridge|Trinity College]] fresher [[Albert Pell]].Marshall (1951), pg 13. Pell had matriculated to Cambridge from [[Rugby School]], where the game of rugby is believed to have originated. Cambridge University Rugby Union Football Club was officially established in 1872, around three years after the Oxford rugby club was founded. The first Varsity match was contested between the two teams on 10 February 1872.Marshall (1951), pg 17. The Cambridge team was led out by captain [[Isaac Cowley Lambert]], wearing pink jerseys with a monogram on the left breast. Played away at the Park in Oxford, Cambridge lost by a single goal to nil. CURUFC officials helped to draw up the laws of the game that were adopted by the [[Rugby Football Union]] (RFU) when it was established in 1871. Cambridge became a Constituent Body of the Union in 1872, a status which the club still holds today. In [[1873-74 Home Nations rugby union matches|1874]], Cambridge provided their first international player directly from the club, when [[John Batten]] represented [[England national rugby union team|England]] in the third encounter against [[Scotland national rugby union team|Scotland]]. [[Ignis asset management]] entered a sponsorship deal with the Cambridge University Rugby Football Club in 2009 ==Notable former players== :''See also [[:Category:Cambridge University rugby union players]]'' ===British and Irish Lions=== The following former players were selected for the [[British and Irish Lions]] touring squads whilst playing for Cambridge University. {{col-begin}} {{col-3}} * [[Carl Aarvold]] 1930 * [[Randolph Aston]] 1891 * [[David Bedell-Sivright]] 1903, 1904 * [[Sydney Pyman Bell]] 1896 * [[J.H. Bordass]] 1924 * [[Harry Bowcott]] 1930 * [[Edward Bromet]] 1891 * [[William Cave (rugby player)|William Cave]] 1903 * [[Granville Coghlan]] 1927 * [[Mike Gibson (rugby player)|Mike Gibson]] 1966 {{col-3}} * [[Thomas Alexander Gibson]] 1903 * [[Johnny Hammond (rugby player)|Johnny Hammond]] 1891 * [[Alfred Hind]] 1903 * [[H. Laxon]] 1908 * [[Alun Lewis (rugby player)|Alun Lewis]] 1977 * [[Osbert Mackie]] 1896 * [[Edwin Mayfield]] 1891 * [[William Grant Mitchell]] 1891 * [[Arthur Rotherham]] 1891 {{col-3}} * [[Clement Pearson Simpson]] 1891 * [[Ken Scotland]] 1959 * [[Arthur Smith (rugby union)|Arthur Smith]] 1955 * [[Aubone Surtees]] 1891 * [[Willie Thomas]] 1888 * [[Robert Thompson (rugby player)|Robert Thompson]] 1891 * [[William Henry Thorman]] 1891 * [[G. H. Waddell]] 1959 * [[William Wotherspoon (rugby player)|William Wotherspoon]] 1891 {{col-3}} {{col-end}} ===International players=== The following former players represented a national team whilst playing for Cambridge University: {{col-begin}} {{col-3}} * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Rob Andrew]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[John Batten]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Robert William Bell]] * {{flagicon|WAL}} [[James Bevan]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[C.E. Chapman]] * {{flagicon|WAL}} [[Glyn Davies (rugby player)|Glyn Davies]] * {{flagicon|SCO}} [[Andrew Ramsay Don-Wauchope]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Edwin Field]] {{col-3}} * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Herbert Fuller]] * {{flagicon|SCO}} [[James Gowans (rugby player)|James Gowans]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Barry Holmes]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Cyril Lowe]] * {{flagicon|SCO}} [[Gregor MacGregor (sportsman)|Gregor MacGregor]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Charles John Marriott]] * {{flagicon|USA}} Matthew Palamountain * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[R.M. Pattisson]] {{col-3}} * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Samuel Victor Perry]] * {{flagicon|SCO}} [[David Robertson (golfer)|David Robertson]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[C.H. Sample]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[William Martin Scott]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[John Guthrie Tait]] * {{flagicon|WAL}} [[Willie Thomas]] * {{flagicon|ENG}} [[Charles Plumpton Wilson]] {{col-3}} {{col-end}} The following Cambridge players won international honours before playing for Cambridge: * {{flagicon|AUS}} [[Daniel Vickerman|Dan Vickerman]] Cambridge71.JPG| Cambridge72.JPG| Cambridge73.JPG| ==Bibliography== * {{cite book |last=Marshall |first=Howard |author2=Jordon, J.P. |title=Oxford v Cambridge, The Story of the University Rugby Match |year=1951 |publisher=Clerke & Cockeran|location=London |isbn=}} ==References== {{reflist}} ==External links== *[http://www.curufc.com/ Cambridge University Rugby website] [[Category:Cambridge University R.U.F.C.| ]] [[Category:Sports clubs established in 1872]] [[Category:University and college rugby union clubs in England]] [[Category:English rugby union teams]]
    ", "Black Friday (mixtape)#REDIRECT [[Black Friday]]", "File:WesternBand Awards.jpg== Summary == First awards ever won by the Western Marching Band. == Licensing == {{self|cc-zero}} {{Copy to Wikimedia Commons|bot=Fbot}} {{Orphan image}}", "2011–12 Philadelphia Flyers season{{NHLTeamSeason | Season = 2011–12 | year = 2011 | Team = Philadelphia Flyers | Conference = [[Eastern Conference (NHL)|Eastern]] | ConferenceRank = 5th | Division = [[Atlantic Division (NHL)|Atlantic]] | DivisionRank = 3rd | Record = 47–26–9 | HomeRecord = 22–13–6 | RoadRecord = 25–13–3 | GoalsFor = 264 | GoalsAgainst = 232 | GeneralManager = [[Paul Holmgren]] | Coach = [[Peter Laviolette]] | Captain = [[Chris Pronger]] | AltCaptain = [[Daniel Brière|Daniel Briere]]
    [[Kimmo Timonen]]
    [[Claude Giroux]] | Arena = [[Wells Fargo Center (Philadelphia)|Wells Fargo Center]] | Attendance = 20,433 (107.4%){{Cite web|url=http://www.flyershistory.net/cgi-bin/attend.cgi|title=All Time Team Attendance|accessdate=October 26, 2013|publisher=Flyers History|work=P. Anson}} |MinorLeague= [[Adirondack Phantoms]] ([[American Hockey League|AHL]]){{Cite web|url=http://www.flyershistory.com/AHL.htm|title=AHL Franchise Statistics|accessdate=October 26, 2013|publisher=Flyers History|work=P. Anson}}
    [[Trenton Titans]] ([[ECHL]]){{Cite web|url=http://www.flyershistory.net/cgi-bin/otheraffiliates.cgi|title=Non-AHL Affiliates|accessdate=October 26, 2013|publisher=Flyers History|work=P. Anson}} | GoalsLeader = [[Scott Hartnell]] (37) | AssistsLeader = [[Claude Giroux]] (65) | PointsLeader = Claude Giroux (93) | PlusMinusLeader = Scott Hartnell (+19) | PIMLeader = [[Zac Rinaldo]] (232) | WinsLeader = [[Ilya Bryzgalov]] (33) | GAALeader = Ilya Bryzgalov (2.48) }} The '''[[2011–12 NHL season|2011–12]] [[Philadelphia Flyers]] [[season (sports)|season]]''' was the Flyers' [[Philadelphia Flyers seasons|45th]] season in the [[National Hockey League]] (NHL). The Flyers lost in the second round of the playoffs to the [[New Jersey Devils]] in five games. ==Off-season== Following his penchant for making big moves, Flyers General Manager [[Paul Holmgren]] pulled off perhaps the most stunning move of his tenure, trading captain [[Mike Richards]] to the [[Los Angeles Kings]] for [[Brayden Schenn]], [[Wayne Simmonds]] and a 2012 second-round draft pick, as well as [[Jeff Carter]] to the [[Columbus Blue Jackets]] for their 2011 first-round pick ([[Sean Couturier]]) and [[Jakub Voráček|Jakub Voracek]], all within the span of an hour on June 23. Later that same day, Holmgren addressed the Flyers' long-standing goaltending issues by signing the [[Arizona Coyotes|Phoenix Coyotes]]' [[Ilya Bryzgalov]] to a nine-year, $51 million contract. On July 1, the Flyers signed [[Jaromír Jágr|Jaromir Jagr]] to a one-year contract, [[Maxime Talbot]] to a five-year contract and [[Andreas Lilja]] to a two-year contract. ==Regular season== [[Chris Pronger]] was named the Flyers' captain;{{cite web|url=http://flyers.nhl.com/club/news.htm?id=588692 |title=Pronger Named Captain |publisher=Philadelphia Flyers |date=September 16, 2011 |accessdate=December 20, 2014}} however, 13 games into the season, he was lost for the remainder of the regular season and playoffs with severe post-concussion syndrome. Bryzgalov's play ranged from spectacular to subpar, including being benched in favor of [[Sergei Bobrovsky]] for the Flyers' 3–2 loss to the [[New York Rangers]] in the [[2012 NHL Winter Classic|2012 Winter Classic]]. Twelve rookies suited up for the Flyers during the season, with the play of Sean Couturier, Brayden Schenn and [[Matt Read]] standing out impressively. The Flyers concluded the regular season with the most powerplay opportunities of all teams (335), the most powerplay goals scored (66) and the most powerplay opportunities against (319).http://www.hockey-reference.com/leagues/NHL_2012.html ===Season standings=== {{2011–12 NHL Atlantic Division standings|team=PHI}} {{2011–12 NHL Eastern Conference standings|team=PHI}} ==Playoffs== The Flyers drew the [[Pittsburgh Penguins]] in the first round of the [[2012 Stanley Cup Playoffs|playoffs]], a series in which the two teams combined for an NHL-record 45 goals in the first four games and a total of 309 penalty minutes in an intense, fight-filled series. The Flyers pulled off the upset in six games against a Pittsburgh team that was heavily favored to win the [[Stanley Cup]]. But in the second round against the [[New Jersey Devils]], the Flyers' run-and-gun style of play was stymied by the Devils' forechecking and defense, and the Flyers were eliminated in five games. ==Schedule and results== ===Pre-season=== {| class="toccolours" style="width:100%; clear:both; margin:1.5em auto; text-align:center;" |- ! colspan="2" style="background:#fff; border-top:#F4793E 5px solid; border-bottom:#000 5px solid;"| 2011 pre-season{{cite web|title=2011-2012 Preseason Schedule/Results - Philadelphia Flyers - Schedule|url=http://flyers.nhl.com/club/schedule.htm?season=20112012&gameType=1|publisher=''Philadelphia Flyers''}} |- valign="top" |